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HLTB21H3 (100)
Chapter 1

HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Toxic Shock Syndrome, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, Red Blood Cell


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Chapter
1

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Chapter One: The Nature of Plagues
-Peter Turner  World War II veteran
oAttended the American Legion convention in Philadelphia
oTwo days after the convention he fell ill with high fever, chills, headache, muscle
aches and pains.
oHe had dry coughs, chest pains, lungs filled with fluid, experienced confusion,
disorientation, hallucinations and loss of memory
-Out of 221 legionnaires who became ill – 34 died from pneumonia
-Called Legionnaires disease – quickly gained public attention and widespread fear
-No person-to-person spread could be documented
-All who became ill had spent longer periods of time in the lobby of the Hotel
-Air was the pathway of the spread of the disease
-Most popular theory  infection resulted from aspiration of bacteria called Legionella in
aerosolized water from cooling towards and evaporative condensers
-Aspiration is produced by choking
oSecretions in the mouth go into the lungs instead of stomach mistakenly
-11, 000 documented cases annually in the US with fertility rate of 15%
-Outbreaks traced to water heaters, baths, therapy equipment etc
-Mary Benton  UCLA TA
oDied of multi-organ failure – low blood pressure, hepatitis, renal insufficiently
and internal blood clots
oToxic Shock Syndrome – TSS
oEach case began with vomiting and high fever followed by fainting, muscle aching
oGender specific disease – not an STD
oLinked to the use of certain types of tampons
-Tampons created a favorable environment for the toxin-producing S.aureus
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oObstruct the flow of menstrual blood and may cause bacteria into the vagina
-2003 SARS outbreak had all the scary elements of a plague  panic, curtailed travel and
commerce and economic collapse
-Little notice has been taken of the ways that disease can shape history
-Influence of disease on history has often been neglected because there appeared to be few
hard and fast lessons learned
-No apparent impact except for catastrophic epidemics
-We live in an age where diseases appear to have minimal effects
-We are immunized as children, treat illness with drugs, well nourished
-HOWEVER – world is much more vulnerable
oDiseases can erupt and spread throughout world more quickly
oIncreased and rapid movements of people and goods
oEfficiencies in transportation
oFew habitats are truly isolated or untouched by humans
-New diseases may be related to new technology – ex: TSS + Tampons
Living off Others
-Parasites – life dependent entities (from latin word β€˜food’)
-Simply a means to an end: obtaining resources needed for their growth and reproduction
-Parasitism  intimate association of two different kinds of organisms
oWherein one benefits (parasite) at the expense of the other (host)
-Parasite often harm their hosts
-The harm afflicted is called a β€œdisease” (means β€˜without comfort)
-Parasites come in many different guises:
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oFragment of genetic material wrapped in protein  virus
oSome are made up of cells  roundworms, flies, ticks etc
-Some parasites live inside the body (HIV) other live on the surface
-Parasites are smaller in mass than their host
-Ex: Malaria Parasite  lives within red blood cell that is 1/5, 000 inch in diameter
-Some parasites have complex life cycles and may have several hosts
oMalaria – hosts are mosquitoes and humans
oBlood fluke disease – hosts are humans and snails
oSleeping sickness – hosts are flies, game animals and humans
-All parasites cause harm though not all kill their host outright
-Resistance may develop in any population and some individuals may be immune or not
susceptible because of genetic abnormality
-Parasites need to disperse their offspring or infected stages to reach new hosts
oThey produce lots of offspring, thereby increasing odds that some will reach new
hosts
oEx: Malaria infected mosquito – injects dozens of thousands of parasites
-Hookworms can live within the intestine for more than 10 years producing each day more
than 10, 000 eggs
-HIV – a million viruses will be reproduced in a few short days after it invades
-Transmission – movement of a parasite from host to host whether by direct or indirect
means
-Vectors  when transmission of parasites involves living organisms
oTransmission by vector may be mechanical (bite) or development
-Transmission may occur through eating utensils, drinking cups, food, needles etc.
-Parasites come in variety of sizes and shapes and kinds
-Bacteria are  PROKARYOTES
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