Chapter 6

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Department
Health Studies
Course
HLTB15H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter SixThe Principles of ResearchSearching the Published and Unpublished Literature 145 Nonsignificant research results tend to remain in internal departmental report known as the grey literatureComputerised and Other Literature Databases 146Manual searches sometimes helpful because all relevant articles will not necessarily be indexed under the appropriate key wordsAlso not all relevant articles will be indexed within one database for example aging journals found indexed in social science but not medical databases Data Extraction and Quality Assessment 148 Data extraction proforma for empirical research reviews should include at minimumClear statement of aims Study design experimental by type observational by type Research quality criteria ex Type ofblinding in RCTs Appropriateness of methods and statistics Country and date of study Site of study ex Populationhospitalprimary care Sample size coverage and evidence of statistical power Response rates sample attrition Sample characteristics including condition Theoretical frameworkPredictors and outcomes assessedMeasurement tools with evidence of reliability and validityOutcomesresults GeneralisabilityMetaanalyses 150 MetaanalysesObservational studies of the body of evidence quantitativeA metaanalysis by pooling and analysing statistically the results from several combinable studies can increase statistical power to detect small but clinically important treatment harms and benefits thus by increasing sample size a metaanalysis can increase the power to detect true effects Two main models in metaanalysis are fixed effects which assume that variability of results between studies is due to random variation and random effects which assume a different underlying effect for each studyRigour 152Important for reliability and validity of data plus the reduction of bias Rigourseveral essential features of the research process which include The systematic approach o research design The awareness of the importance of interpretation and not perception or assumption Systematic and thorough collection Analysis and interpretation of the data The maintenance of meticulous and detailed records of interviews and observations The use of triangulated more than one research methods as a check on the validity of the findingsAnd the ability of an independent trained investigator to reanalyse the data using the same processes and methods and reach the same conclusions
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