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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Week 2 Beginning Notes on Ch1 2Intro to Disease EcologyCh1 The Nature of PlaguesLegionnaires disease found in 1976 contains symptoms of fever chills headache muscle ache and pain in the beginning then dry cough chest pains shortness of breath vomiting and diarrhea and then lungs fill with fluids of pus and experienced confusion hallucinations and loss of memoryAir was thought to the probable pathway of how the disease spread and the most popular theory was that the infection resulted from aspiration of bacteria called Legionella in aerosolized water from either cooling towers or evaporative condensersUnlike infections caused by inhalation aspiration is produced by choking secretions in the mouth get past the choking reflex and instead of going into the esophagus and stomach mistakenly enter the lungsprotective mechanism that would prevent aspirations is defective in older people smokers and those with lung diseaseOutbreaks have been traced to water heaters whirlpool baths respiratory therapy equipment and ultrasonic misters used in grocery stores Toxic shock syndromea few years later another new disease came along first documented case was under patient Mary BentonBefore falling sick was healthy and active after her death culture from her blood urine and stools were negative but the vaginal sample contained the bacterium Staphylococcus aureuseach case began with vomiting and high fever followed by lightheadedness and fainting the through felt sore and the muscles achedA day later a sunburn like rash appeared and the eyes became blood shot Within 3 or 4 days they start suffering confusion fatigue weakness thirst and a rapid pulse skin became cool and moist and breathing became rapid this followed by a sudden drop in blood pressure if it remained low enough for a long enough period circulatory collapse produced shockTSS is a gender specific diseasefrom19791996 it affected 5296 women median age 22 with a peak death rate of TSS was thought to be an STD but it is not it was ultimately linked to the use of certain types of tampons especially those containing cross linked carboxymethyl cellulose with polyester foam which provided a favourable environment for the toxinproducing Saureus An elevated vaginal temp and neutral pH both of which occur during menses were enhanced by the use of these superabsorbent tamponsAnd because tampons obstruct the flow of the menstrual blood and may cause reflux of blood and bacteria into the vaginaBy 1980 the removal of these tampon brands resulted in a dramatic decrease of death from TSS
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