HLTB01 Chapter 6 10/25/2012 5:29:00 PM
o The body’s main transportation system.
o Deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
o Carry waste product to the organs responsible for elimination.
Composed of the heart, blood vessels and blood.
o Artery carry blood away and veins carry blood to the heart.
Age related changes:
o Enlargement of the heart
Due to increase size in muscle cells & myositis
o Slowing of electrical activity
o Slowed pulse: bradycardia, fat tissue surrounds the senatorial node
o Increased blood pressure
o Decreased ability to cool down or heat up
high blood pressure (140/90) is a common condition in which the force of the
blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health
problems, such as heart disease.
o Optimal blood pressure for adults is 120/80
Systolic pressure is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near
the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are
Diastolic pressure is minimum pressure in the arteries, which
occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are
filled with blood
Systolic hypertension increases through life, whereas an elevation
in diastolic pressure tends to level off in later years.
Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood
pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.
Although a few people with early-stage high blood pressure may have dull
headaches, dizzy spells or a few more nosebleeds than normal, these signs and
symptoms typically don’t occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe,
even life-threatening stage.
Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the
amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries.
The thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls High blood pressure both results from and is a cause
One of the most common forms of arteriosclerosis
The deposition of plaques inside the arterial wall
Create a disruption of blood supply to all systems of the body
Trauma, toxins, viruses, cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides,
dead blood cells can cause the injury to the inner lining of an artery.
Risk factor for both: being male, family history, smoking, a diet high in saturated fat, diabetes,
hypertension, obesity, and leading a sedentary lifestyle.
Peripheral vascular disease
a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to
extremities, usually the legs, don’t receive enough blood flow to keep up with
Symptoms of PAOD: pain, a pale or bluish color to the skin of the feet and legs,
and a lack of hair growth in these areas.
Likely to be a sign of a more widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in your
one primary treatment is encourage exercise, most important is stop smoking.
Abroad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect the heart.
The various diseases that full under the umbrella of heart disease include:
o Diseases of the blood vessels, such as coronary artery disease
o Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias)
o Heart infections
o And heart defects you’re born with (congenital heart defects)
Coronary Heart Disease(CHD)
Leading cause of heart disease
Results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart
Abdominal and chest fat are especially dangerous risk factors.
o Angina pectoris 心绞痛
Common symptom of CHD
Demand for blood to the heart muscle is greater than supply
Felt as pain that radiates to the left shoulder and down the left arm
or to the jaw or back.
Older people may also have dyspnea (difficultly breathing), coughing, or confusion.
o Myocardial infarction (MI)/HeartAttack 心肌梗死
CHD can lead to MI
Artery is blocked because of a blood clot.
Among old, MI can even be silent like in sleep or at rest
When the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs
Almost exclusively a disease of older people
Left ventricle less able to pump blood. Kidneys are affected and restrict release of
water and sodium, which leads to an excess of fluid in the body’s venous system –
increase in blood flow to heart and lungs – ventricles are slow at pumping blood.
Fluid backs up in the lungs and seeps into the lungs
Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, and lethargy
Decrease in hypertension and CHD, increase in heart failure.
Main function: transfer oxygen from the air into the bloodstream and to remove
Involve the muscles of the abdomen, chest, and diaphragm.
o To breath in, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of the chest contract,
causing the diaphragm to lower and the thoracic cavity to expand.
o When expiration, the relaxing diaphragm bow upward and the intercostal
muscles relax, allowing the air to leave the lungs.
o Nasal cavity -> nasopharynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles ->
Alveoli (each being smaller than the previous)
o Alveoli: perfused by capillaries, sites where blood exchange occurs
(replenish oxygen and extract CO2 from blood)
o Lungs have most extensive network of capillaries 毛细管 than any organ.
Lung volume: amount of air expired with each breath
Tidal volume: person resting quietly
Residual volume: remaining air left after expiration of air
Vidal capacity: tidal volume + extra amounts person can breathe in
Lung capacity: vital capacity +residual volume
o Decrease in cough reflex
o Reduced ability of airways to clean themselves and fight infection o Changes in the respiratory system can make older adults more vulnerable
Leading cause of cancer death in Canada
o More Canadian women die of lung cancer than of breast cancer
o But varies by ethnicity and age
Two most common types
o Small-cell cancer
grow rapidly, high rate of metastasize
o Non-small-cell caner
Slower growing, less likely to metastasize (older adults)
Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur only when the disease is
Inflammation of the lungs that’s usually caused by infection
Frail older people are particularly vulnerable to pneumonia because of normal
aging changes in the lungs, including: decreased lung capacity, inadequate cough
reflex, and a decline in immune function.
o Common among old, with difficulty in breathing, drinking, eating, or
o Caused by intake of substances such as food, fluids, medications.
Diagnoses: difficult to understand due to different among the young and the old
o Young: fever, chills, cough
o Old: confusion, poor appetite, or weakness and/or loss of ability
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
General term for several diseases of the respiratory tract
A leading cause of both morbidity and morality among the older.
Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing (strongly related to smoking;
may happen due to exposure to asbestos, lead in paints)
o Chronic bronchitis
Most common of the COPD disorders.
The cells of the respiratory tract are inflamed and secrete c