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HLTC22H3 (102)
Dan Silver (21)
Chapter 6

HLTB01 Chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Dan Silver

HLTB01 Chapter 6 10/25/2012 5:29:00 PM Cardiovascular system  Main function: o The body’s main transportation system. o Deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues o Carry waste product to the organs responsible for elimination.  Composed of the heart, blood vessels and blood. o Artery carry blood away and veins carry blood to the heart.  Age related changes: o Enlargement of the heart  Due to increase size in muscle cells & myositis o Slowing of electrical activity o Slowed pulse: bradycardia, fat tissue surrounds the senatorial node o Increased blood pressure o Decreased ability to cool down or heat up Disease-related processes  Hypertension  high blood pressure (140/90) is a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. o Optimal blood pressure for adults is 120/80  Systolic pressure is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting  Diastolic pressure is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood  Systolic hypertension increases through life, whereas an elevation in diastolic pressure tends to level off in later years.  Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.  Although a few people with early-stage high blood pressure may have dull headaches, dizzy spells or a few more nosebleeds than normal, these signs and symptoms typically don’t occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe, even life-threatening stage.  Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries.  Arteriosclerosis  The thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls  High blood pressure both results from and is a cause  Atherosclerosis  One of the most common forms of arteriosclerosis  The deposition of plaques inside the arterial wall  Create a disruption of blood supply to all systems of the body  Trauma, toxins, viruses, cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, dead blood cells can cause the injury to the inner lining of an artery. Risk factor for both: being male, family history, smoking, a diet high in saturated fat, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and leading a sedentary lifestyle.  Peripheral vascular disease  a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs  extremities, usually the legs, don’t receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand.  Symptoms of PAOD: pain, a pale or bluish color to the skin of the feet and legs, and a lack of hair growth in these areas.  Likely to be a sign of a more widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in your arteries (atherosclerosis)  one primary treatment is encourage exercise, most important is stop smoking. Heart disease  Abroad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect the heart.  The various diseases that full under the umbrella of heart disease include: o Diseases of the blood vessels, such as coronary artery disease o Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) o Heart infections o And heart defects you’re born with (congenital heart defects)  Coronary Heart Disease(CHD)  Leading cause of heart disease  Results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart  Abdominal and chest fat are especially dangerous risk factors. o Angina pectoris 心绞痛  Common symptom of CHD  Demand for blood to the heart muscle is greater than supply  Felt as pain that radiates to the left shoulder and down the left arm or to the jaw or back.  Older people may also have dyspnea (difficultly breathing), coughing, or confusion. o Myocardial infarction (MI)/HeartAttack 心肌梗死  CHD can lead to MI  Artery is blocked because of a blood clot.  Among old, MI can even be silent like in sleep or at rest  Heart failure  When the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs  Almost exclusively a disease of older people  Left ventricle less able to pump blood. Kidneys are affected and restrict release of water and sodium, which leads to an excess of fluid in the body’s venous system – increase in blood flow to heart and lungs – ventricles are slow at pumping blood. Fluid backs up in the lungs and seeps into the lungs  Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, and lethargy  Decrease in hypertension and CHD, increase in heart failure. Respiratory system  Main function: transfer oxygen from the air into the bloodstream and to remove carbon dioxide.  Involve the muscles of the abdomen, chest, and diaphragm. o To breath in, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of the chest contract, causing the diaphragm to lower and the thoracic cavity to expand. o When expiration, the relaxing diaphragm bow upward and the intercostal muscles relax, allowing the air to leave the lungs.  Air movement: o Nasal cavity -> nasopharynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli (each being smaller than the previous) o Alveoli: perfused by capillaries, sites where blood exchange occurs (replenish oxygen and extract CO2 from blood) o Lungs have most extensive network of capillaries 毛细管 than any organ.  Lung volume: amount of air expired with each breath  Tidal volume: person resting quietly  Residual volume: remaining air left after expiration of air  Vidal capacity: tidal volume + extra amounts person can breathe in and out.  Lung capacity: vital capacity +residual volume  Age-related changes: o Decrease in cough reflex o Reduced ability of airways to clean themselves and fight infection o Changes in the respiratory system can make older adults more vulnerable to illness Disease-related changes  Lung cancer  Leading cause of cancer death in Canada o More Canadian women die of lung cancer than of breast cancer o But varies by ethnicity and age  Two most common types o Small-cell cancer  grow rapidly, high rate of metastasize o Non-small-cell caner  Slower growing, less likely to metastasize (older adults)  Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur only when the disease is advance.  Pneumonia  Inflammation of the lungs that’s usually caused by infection  Frail older people are particularly vulnerable to pneumonia because of normal aging changes in the lungs, including: decreased lung capacity, inadequate cough reflex, and a decline in immune function.  Aspiration pneumonia o Common among old, with difficulty in breathing, drinking, eating, or taking medications. o Caused by intake of substances such as food, fluids, medications.  Diagnoses: difficult to understand due to different among the young and the old o Young: fever, chills, cough o Old: confusion, poor appetite, or weakness and/or loss of ability  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  General term for several diseases of the respiratory tract  A leading cause of both morbidity and morality among the older.  Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing (strongly related to smoking; may happen due to exposure to asbestos, lead in paints) o Chronic bronchitis  Most common of the COPD disorders.  The cells of the respiratory tract are inflamed and secrete c
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