Chapter 2 summary notes

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International Development Studies
Anne- Emanuelle Birn

Chapter 2: The historical origins of modern international health Civilizations as early as the ancient Chinese, Egyptian, Greco-Roman and Mesoamerican had L]L}o]Lo] ZoZKZZ:ZL[L]oZMiddle Ages that public health care expanded beyond local regions. In Europe the two major pandemics were the Plague of Justinian in 542 CE that spanned from th Asia to Ireland and then the Black Death in the 14 century o With the Black Death early attempts at international disease control involved quarantines cities, in particular preventing access by ships, and cordon sanitaire, which ]ZZo]ZZKL}^} o]L2L}}o}2}}Z} ]]Z}L] 2]}LZ;IL] Zo]ZZZ]Zlazaretto in 1403, a quarantine station to hold and disinfect humLZL 2}_~:9o] ZoZ}ZZ Z}}L international health authority. o Girolomo Fracastoro, a Veronese physician-scholar, postulated that the plague could be transmitted via direct contact or the atmosphere which was used as justification for quarantine measures o By the 18 century new environmental engineering methods were being implemented Z ZZ^]K}L]o]}L7]L2}Z2LL7Z oL]L2;:K]2]}L7 LZ]o}22_~ The rise of European imperialism o European imperialism began in the 15 century with the Portuguese attack on Muslim settlements I 1415 o Imperialism was somewhat an expansion of the Crusades as it can be seen with Europeans incorporating desire to proliferate Christianity as one of their motives with the ever present Islamic influence. th o In 17 century Iberian dominance was challenged when the English and Dutch pursued interests establishing colonies worldwide under European political control o Health consequences of imperialism can be seen in the high death toll of indigenous people invaded as the Bishop Bartolomew de las Casas noted in Antilles upon and after }oKZ[Z]o:^Koo}oZ} }L]Z]2Zo}Z]L} ]LZ: o Medical practitioners had originally been brought to treat military men, but with the establishment of colonies began to treat the colonists as well as establish rules for medical practices. o With growing interest in indigenous knowledge of medicines, Martin de la Cruz was the first to catalogue indigenous healing knowledge in his Codex Badianus of 1552 produced for the Spanish emperor. Colonial Spanish and Portuguese administrations founded medical faculties and Z}}LL^Z] Z}K] o ]]}LZZZo]ZZ;ZZ] ]LZZ]L2 urban elites, Catholic hospitals providing charity care and traditional healers and K]]Z;:L]L2ZKE}]}Z}o]}L_~
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