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Chapter 8

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Onboarding, Organizational Culture, Job Satisfaction

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Melissa Warner

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Chapter 8 | Social Influence in Organizations
Information Dependence and Effect Dependence
We often rely on information that others provide for us.
This information dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts,
feelings, and actions via the signals they send to us.
oReliance on others for information about how to think, feel, or act.
Social Information Processing Theory
oInformation from others is used to interpret events and develop expectations about
appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours.
oOrganizational members look to others for information and cues about how they
should behave.
oIndividuals are often motivated to compare their own thoughts, feelings, and
actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their
oEffects of social information can be strong, often exerting as much or more
influence over others as objective reality.
oIndividual behaviour is influenced and shaped by others.
Effect Dependence
oReliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment,
oTwo complementary processes.
Group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think
and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group.
Members frequently desire the approval of the group.
Social Influence Process and Conformity
One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the
tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by
the group.
Three different motives for social conformity.
Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or
avoid punishment.
Simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms.
Occurs because a member wishes to acquire rewards from the group and
avoid punishment.
Primarily involves effect dependence.
Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who
promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself.
There are effect dependence elements here, but information dependence is
especially important.
If someone is similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that
person for information about how to think and act.
Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs,
values, and attitudes that underlie the norm.
Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, not because it achieves
rewards, avoids punishment, or pleases others.
Conformity is due to internal, rather than external, forces.

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Chapter 8 | Social Influence in Organizations
Simple compliance can set the stage for more complete identification and involvement
with organizational norms and roles.
The process through which this occurs is organizational socialization.
Organizational Socialization
oThe process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that
are necessary to function in a group or organization.
oPrimary means by which organizations communicate their culture and values to
new members.
oDifferent socialization methods influence a number of immediate or proximal
socialization outcomes, such as learning, which lead to more distal or longer-term
outcomes, such as attitudes and behaviours.
oLearning during socialization has often been described in terms of content areas
or domains of learning, such as the task, role, group, and organization domain.
Newcomers need to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to perform
their job duties and tasks;
The need to learn the appropriate behaviours and expectations of their role
They need to learn the norms and values of their work group;
They need to learn about the organization, such as history, traditions,
language, politics, mission, and culture.
oAs newcomers learn about each of these areas, they should begin to master their
tasks and integrate with others in their workgroup and the organization.
This helps to reduce their role ambiguity and role conflict.
One of the goals of socialization is to provide new hires with information
and knowledge about their role to avoid problems of role conflict and
oAn important objective of organizational socialization is for newcomers to
achieve a good fit.
First, newcomers must acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to
perform their work tasks and roles.
This is known as person-job fit
Person-Job Fit
oThe match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and
abilities and the requirements of a job.
Second, newcomers must also learn the values and beliefs that are
important to the group or organization.
This is known as person-organization fit
Person-Organization Fit
oThe match between an employee’s personal values and the
values of an organization
Both PJ and PO fit are strongly influenced by the socialization process and
are related to job attitudes and behaviours.
oOne of the primary goals of organizational socialization is to ensure that new
employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values, and assumptions of an
organization’s culture, and for individuals to define themselves in terms of the
organization and what it is perceived to represent.
Organizational Identification
Extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of the
organization and what it is perceived to represent.

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Chapter 8 | Social Influence in Organizations
Reflects an individual’s learning and acceptance of organization’s
oSocialization is important because it has a direct effect on proximal socialization
outcomes, leading to more positive distal outcomes.
oOngoing process by virtue of continuous interaction with ppl in the organization
Stages of Socialization
Anticipatory Socialization
oFirst step in socialization.
oConsiderable amount of socialization occurs even before a person becomes a
member of a particular organization.
oSome anticipatory socialization includes a formal process of skill and attitude
acquisition, such as that which might occur by attending university.
oOther anticipatory socialization might be informal, such as that acquired through a
series of summer jobs or by watching the portrayal of organizational life in TV.
oSome organizations began to socialize job candidates even before they are hired at
recruitment events, where organizational representatives discuss the organization
with potential hires.
oNot all anticipatory socialization is accurate and useful for the new member.
oThe new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life,
encounters the day-to-day reality of this life.
oFormal aspects of this stage includes orientation programs and rotation through
various parts of the organization.
oInformal aspects include getting to know and understand the style and personality
of one’s boss and co-workers.
oOrganization and its experienced members are looking for an acceptable degree of
conformity to organizational norms and gradual acquisition of appropriate role
oRecruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations fulfilled. If
successful, the recruit will have compiled with critical organizational norms and
should begin to identify with experienced organizational members.
Role Management
oHaving survived the encounter stage and acquired basic role behaviours, the new
members attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing his or her role in
the organization.
oFollowing some conformity to group norms, the new recruit might now be in a
position to modify the role to better serve the organization.
This might require forming connections outside the immediate workgroup.
The organizational member must also confront balancing the now-familiar
organizational role with non-work roles and family demands.
Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract
Unrealistic Expectations
People entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and often
unrealistically high.
oOnce they enter an organization they realize their expectations are not being met
and they experience what is known as a ‘reality shock.’
oNewcomers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction,
organizational commitment
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