Chapter 6 - Customer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behaviour.doc
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Chapter 6 – Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer
Consumer Behaviour – the buying behaviour of final consumers – individuals and
households that buy goods and services for personal consumption.
•Consumer behaviour is an ongoing process that starts long before the consumer
purchases a product or service and continues long after they consume it.
Consumer market – all the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and
services for personal consumption.
Factors Affecting Consumer Behaviour:
•CULTURAL FACTORS: culture, subculture, social class
Culture – the set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours
learned by a member of society from gamily and other important
-Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on
buying behavioural may vary greatly from country to country.
Failure to adjust to these differences can result in ineffective
marketing or embarrassing mistakes.
-Marketers are always trying to spot cultural shifts to discover new
products that might be wanted.
Subculture – a group of people with shared value systems based on
common life experiences and situations. (nationalities, religions, racial
groups, and geographic region)
Social Class – relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society
whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviours. (occupation,
income, education, wealth, and other variables)
-Marketers are interested in social class because people within a
given social class tend to exhibit similar buying behaviour. Social
classes show distinct product and brand preferences in areas such
as clothing, home furnishings, leisure activity, and automobiles.
•SOCIAL FACTORS (small groups, family, social roles and status)
oGroups and Social Networks
Group – two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual
-Many small groups influence a person’s behaviour directly.
Opinion Leaders – a person within a reference group who, because of
special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exerts social
influence on others.
-Marketers of brands subjected to strong group influence must figure
out how to reach opinion leaders. Marketers often try to identify
opinion leaders for their products and direct marketing efforts
toward them. They use buzz marketing by enlisting or even creating
opinion leaders to serve as “brand ambassadors” who spread the
word about their product.
Online social networks – online social communities – blogs, social
networking websites, or even virtual worlds – where people socialize or
exchange information and opinions.
-Marketers are working to harness the power of these new social
networks to promote their products and build close customer
Family members can strongly influence buyer behaviour.
oRoles and Status
The person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status.
People usually choose products appropriate to their roles and status.
•PERSONAL FACTORS (age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation,
lifestyle, and personality and self-concept)
oAge and Life-Cycle Stage
People change the goods and services they buy over their lifetimes. Tastes in food,
clothes, furniture, and recreation are often age related.
-Marketers often define their target markets in terms of life-cycle stage and develop
appropriate products and marketing plans for each stage.
Marketers try to identify the occupational groups that have an above-average interest
in their products and services. A company can even specialize in making products
needed by given occupational group.
Marketers of income-sensitive goods watch trends in personal income, savings, and
interest rates. If economic indicators point to a recession, marketers can take steps to
redesign, reposition, and reprice their products closely.
Lifestyle – a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests,
-When used carefully, the lifestyle concept can help marketers understand changing
consumer values and how they affect buying behaviour. Consumers don’t just buy
products, they buy the values and lifestyles those products represent.
oPersonality and Self-Concept
Personality – the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively
consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. (self-confidence,
dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness)
Brand personality – the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a
particular brand. (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, ruggedness)
Chapter 6 consumer markets and consumer buyer. Consumer behaviour the buying behaviour of final consumers individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption. Consumer behaviour is an ongoing process that starts long before the consumer purchases a product or service and continues long after they consume it. Consumer market all the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption. Cultural factors: culture, subculture, social class: culture. Culture the set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours learned by a member of society from gamily and other important institutions. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavioural may vary greatly from country to country. Failure to adjust to these differences can result in ineffective marketing or embarrassing mistakes. Marketers are always trying to spot cultural shifts to discover new products that might be wanted: subculture.