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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Past, Present, Future

6 Pages

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Janelle Leboutillier

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Chapter 1 Past Present FutureIntroductionA society for Neuroscience was founded as recently as 1970The study of the brain is an old science Historically scientist who devote themselves to an understanding of the NS came from different scientific disciplines medicine biology psychology physics chemistry and mathematicsNeuroscience revolution occurred when scientist realized the best hope for understand the brain came from interdisciplinary approachThe Origins of NeuroscienceEvidence suggests that prehistoric ancestry appreciated that the brain was vital to life archaeological record with examples of hominid skulls dating back 1000000 ago and more showing fatal cranial damage As early as 7000 years ago people were boring holes into each others skulls trepanation to cure others They showed signs of healing after the operation and some individual apparently survived multiple skull surgeriesView of the Brain in Ancient GreeceWe can say that there seems to be a very clear correlation between structure and function Difference in appearances predict difference in functionQuick inspection and a few simple experiments reveal that the head is specialized for sensing the environment and much more th Many Greek scholars of the 4 century thought that the brain was an organ of sensation The most influential was Hippocrates 460379 BC the father of Western Medicine who stated that the brain was not only involved in sensation but also was a seat of intelligenceThis view was not universally accepted Aristotle 384322 BC believed that the hear was the center of intellect He proposedthat the brain was a radiator for the cooling of blood that was overheated by the seething heart the rational temperament of humans was explained by the large cooling capacity of our brainViews of the Brain During the Roman EmpireThe most important figure in Roman medicine was Greek physician and writer Galen 130200 AD who embraced Hippocratic view of brain functionGalens opinions were influence by his careful animal dissections His favourite subject was a sheep brainy 2 major parts were evident the cerebrum in the front and the cerebellum in the back Galen tried to deduce function from the structure of the cerebrum and the cerebellum y He poked the freshly dissected brain with a finger to reveal that the cerebellum was hard the cerebrum was soft From this observation Galen suggested that the cerebrum must be recipient of sensation and that the cerebellum must command the muscles He recognized that to form memories sensation must be imprinted onto the brain Naturally this must occur in the doughy cerebrum y Galen is somewhat right The cerebrum is largely concerned with sensation and perception and the cerebellum is primary movement control center The cerebrum is a repository of memory y How would the brain receive sensation and move the limbs Galen cut open the brain and found that it was hollow The spaces called ventricles have fluid To Galen this discovery fit perfectly with the theory that the body functioned according to a balance fo 4 cvital fluids or humors Sensations were
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