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Neuroscience (289)
NROC64H3 (81)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14.docx

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Department
Neuroscience
Course
NROC64H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 14Brain Control of MovementIntroductionFinal common pathway for behaviour is alpha motor neuron and this activity is under the control of sensory feedback and spinal interneurons and that reflex movements reveal the complexity of spinal control systemCentral Motor System is arranged as hierarchy of control levels FOREBRAINTOP SPINAL CRDBOTTOMHighest level Association areas of neocortex and basal gangliaSTRATEGY goal of movement and movement strategy that best achieves the goalMiddle level Motor cortex and cerebellumTACTICS sequences of muscle contractions arranged in space and time required to smoothly and accurately achieve the strategic goalLowest level Represented by stem brain and SCEXECUTION Activate motor neuron and interneuron pools to generate goaldirected movement and make necessary adjustments of postureie Baseball pitcher Neocortex has information senses strategies need to be devised to move body to make options which are filtered through BG and back to cortex until final decision Motor areas of cortex and cerebellum make tactical decision and issue instructions to BS and SC Activation of neurons in BS and SC cause movement to be executed Descending Spinal TractsAxons descend brain through SC through 2 major groups of pathways 1 Lateral pathwayVoluntary movement of distal musculature under DIRECT cortical control 2 Ventromedial pathway Control of posture and locomotion under brain stem control The Lateral PathwaysMost importantcorticospinal tract longest and large CNS tract23 of axons in motor cortexarea 4 and 6 in frontal lobeRest of axons in corticospinal tract from somatosensory areas of parietal lobe to regulate flow of somatosensory information to brainAxons pass through internal capsulecerebral peduncle lost of axons in midbrainpons forms bulge called medullary pyramid corticospinals tract cross section is triangular is called the pyramidal tractPyramidal tract crossesdecussateCONTRALATERAL THINGSaxons collect in lateral and form lateral corticospinal tractterminate in dosrsolateral region of ventral horn and intermediate gray matter control distal muscle particularly flexorsRubrospinal tract which originate in red nucleus of midbrain named for pinkish hue Latin rubrored Axons decussate in pons and join to corticospinal tract in lateral column
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