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Chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Chapter 13Spinal Control of Movement IntroductionMotor system has muscles and neurons that control them to move things is all the mankind can do for such the sole executants is muscle whether in whispering a syllable or in telling a forestSC contains motor programs for generation of coordinated movements and that these programs are accessed executed and modified by descending commands from the brainMotor control has 2 parts 1 SCS command and control of coordinated muscle contraction 2 brains command and control of motor programs in SCPeripheral somatic motor system joints skeletal muscles spinal motor neurons and how they communicate w each otherThe Somatic Motor SystemMuscles divided into 2 categories 1 Smooth muscle Digestive tract arteries and related structures Innervated by nerve fibers from ANS role in peristalsis movement of material through intestines and control of blood pressure and blood flow 2 Striated muscle 2 types A Cardiac muscle Heart muscle contracts rhythmically even in absence of innervation from ANS functions to accelerateslow down heart rate B Skeletal muscle Bulk of muscle mass of body and functions to move bones around joints move eyes wI head control respiration control facial expression produce speechEnclosed by connective tissue sheath that forms tendons Each muscle has 100s of muscle fibres cells of skeletal muscle innervated y 33 paired somitesThese muscles and parts of NS that control themsomatic motor systemie Elbow jointJoint is where humerusupper arm bone is bound by ligaments to radius of ulnalower arm bonefunction like hinge on pocket knifeClose knifeflexion muscle brachialis other biceps brachii and coracobrachialis Musclesflexors all 3 musclessynergistsOpen knifeextension musclestriceps brachii and anconeusextensorsANTAGONISTS TO ONE ANOTHERMuscles that are responsible for movements of trunkaxial muscles maintaining postureMuscles moving shoulder elbow pelvis and kneeproximalgridle muscleslocomotionMuscles moving hands feet digitdistal musclesmanipulation of objectsThink axialclose proximal next close distalFAR
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