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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Yvonne Ramcharan

Realism  This first Section of realism covers Waltz and his neo-realism theory.  The beginning of this section discusses Waltz belief of an Anarchy system. He believes that an international change occurs when great powers rise and fall and the balance of powers shifts accordingly. He assumes that the fundamental concern of states is security and survival, the major problem of great power conflict is war, and that the major task on international relations among the great powers is peace and security.  Waltz approach has no regard to human nature, cannot grasp normative inquries, he believes that the structure of the system influences state leaders decisions.  Structure/statescraft dictates policy.  He believes that all states are equal to each other.  None is entitles to command, none is required to obey. Equal only in a formal-legal sense.  Great powers manage the international system  Waltz and the bi-polar system and the multi polar system.  bipolar systems more stable which provides a guarantee of peace and security than multipolar systems. John Mearsheimer goes into more depth with this waltz theory. 3 basic reasons why they are more stable and peaceful:  Number of great-power conflicts is fewer which in turn reduces the possibilities of great power war  Easier to operate an effective system of deterrence.  Chances of miscalculation and misadventure are lower.  being at least there are only 2 great powers rather than 3, 4 or even 5, so this way states are at ease, and they are not constantly paranoid of the activities going on in other countries.  States are not insecure about the well being of their state, because with more great powers, comes more conflict with being the more dominant state – and conflicts are resolved through war. Example is the Cold War.  Mearsheimer believes that the distribution and nature of military power are the main sources of war and peace. An example he gave was the “long peace,” because there was a bi-polar system of military power in Europe, the equal military power or the U.S and the Soviet Union and the paranoia of both rival superpowers were equipped with nuclear arsenals.  To Mearsheimer, the Cold War transformed a historical violent region into a peaceful region because after the cold war, the withdrawal of the U.S and the Soviets from the European, gave rise to a multipolar system. But he also argues that the bringing of a multipolar system in Europe will bring instability and a renewed danger of international conflict, crises and possibly war.  Conquest is less difficult and more tempting, unequal and shifting balances of power.  This brings us to the issue of realism and the NATO expansion.  NATO being the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created in 1949, consisting of 26 members by 2005.  to contain and expand to the efforts of confronting and containing the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.  Concluded that enlargement of NATO would improve international security and stability for the entire Euro-Atlantic area by fostering patterns and habits of cooperations.  things like good neighbourly relations, like the transatlantic partnership, which boosts the confidences of the states for their defences.  States of the Soviet-organized Warsaw Pact began to join NATO. NATO was opened for any European States willing to further the principles of the NATO treaty and to contribute to the security and well-being of the North Atlantic Area.  But obviously the expansions and alliances of NATO
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