Textbook Notes (381,094)
CA (168,350)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYA01H3 (1,329)
Steve Joordens (1,150)
Chapter 7

Textbook Chapter 7

9 Pages
52 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Psychology Chapter 7: Learning and Behaviour
-Learning: an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour
is changed by experience
-Performance: the behavioural change produced by the internal changes brought about
by learning
-Scientists look at performance to decide if learning has taken place
Habituation:
-Orienting Response: any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory
organs (eyes, ears, nose) toward the source of a novel stimulus
-Habituation: simplest form of learning: learning not to respond to an unimportant event
that occurs repeatedly
-George Humphrey: wrote a textbook on this topic and did an experiment on land
snails. Studied with Wundt.
Classical Conditioning:
-involves the learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur
-ex. mouth watering when thinking or smelling favourite foods
Pavlovs Serendipitous Discovery:
-his main ambition was to discover the neural mechanisms controlling glandular
secretion during digestion
-Classical Conditioning: process by which a response normally elicited by one
stimulus (the unconditional stimulus or UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus
(the conditional stimulus or CS) as well
www.notesolution.com
-sequence and timing of events are important factors in classical conditioning
-provides us with a way to learn cause-and-effect relations between enviro events
-UCS: in classical conditioning, a stimulus such as food, that naturally elicits a reflexive
response, such as salivation
-UCR: unconditional response. A response such as salivation that is naturally elicited by
the UCS
-CS: a stimulus that, because of its repeated association with the UCS, eventually elicits
a conditioning response (CR)
-CR: the response elicit by the CS
Basic Principles of Classical Consitioning:
-Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the time during which a CR first appears and
increases in frequency
-Extinction: in classical conditioning, the elimination of a response that occurs when
the CS is repeatedly presented without being followed by the UCS
-Spontaneous Recovery: after an interval of time, the reappearance of a response that
had previously been extinguished
-Generalization: in classical conditioning, CRs elicited by stimuli that resemble the CS
used in training
-Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the appearance of a CR when one stimulus
is presented (the CS+) but not another (the CS-)
Conditional Emotional Responses:
-Phobias: unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, such as insects, animals,
or enclosed spaces, learned through classical conditioning
What is Learned in Classical Conditioning:
www.notesolution.com
-A neuron stimulus becomes a CS only when the following conditions are satisfied:
The CS regularly occurs prior to the presentation of the UCS
The CS does not regularly occur when the UCS is absent
-Blocking: the prevention of or attenuation in learning that occurs to a neutral CS when
it is conditioned in the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus
-Inhibitory Conditional Response: a response tendency conditioned to a signal that
predicts the absence of the UCS; generally not observed directly but assessed though
other tests
-Excitatory Conditional Response: a response tendency conditioned to a signal that
the UCS is about to occur. This is the type of CR exemplified by Pavlovs salivation
response
Operant Conditioning:
-A form of learning in which behaviour is affected by its consequences. Favourable
consequences strengthen the behaviour and unfavourable consequences weaken the
behaviour
The Law of Effect:
-discovered by Thorndike
-Law of Effect: Thorndikes idea that the consequences of behaviour determine
whether it is likely to be repeated
Skinner and Operant Behaviour:
-He championed the law of effect, produced apparatus and methods for studying
behaviour and created his own philosophies for interpreting it
-Operant Chamber: an apparatus in which an animals behaviour can be easily
observed, manipulated and automatically recorded
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Psychology Chapter 7: Learning and Behaviour -Learning: an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience -Performance: the behavioural change produced by the internal changes brought about by learning -Scientists look at performance to decide if learning has taken place Habituation: -Orienting Response: any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose) toward the source of a novel stimulus -Habituation: simplest form of learning: learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly -George Humphrey: wrote a textbook on this topic and did an experiment on land snails. Studied with Wundt. Classical Conditioning: -involves the learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur -ex. mouth watering when thinking or smelling favourite foods Pavlovs Serendipitous Discovery: -his main ambition was to discover the neural mechanisms controlling glandular secretion during digestion -Classical Conditioning: process by which a response normally elicited by one stimulus (the unconditional stimulus or UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (the conditional stimulus or CS) as well www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit