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PSYA01H3 (1,329)
Steve Joordens (1,150)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Memory

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 8 Memory
Overview and Sensory Memory
- Memory: Any influence by which past experiences affect current performance the
cognitive processes of encoding (sensory information is converted to a form stored in
memory system), storing (maintaining information) and retrieving information (locating
and using stored information)
STIMULUS SENSORY MEMORY WORKING MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY
- Relationship Between Working and Long-Term Memory: The purpose is not to just
transfer information into long term memory, some say that this is thinking
- Visual sensory image or iconic memory is sensory memory that holds a brief visual
image of a scene that has been perceived, aka VISUAL PERSISTENCE, the capacity of
iconic memory done by Sperling (1960) with 3 tones and stimulus displays (group of words)
(focused on visual sensory memory which termed iconic memory)
- Auditory sensory memory or echoic memory is sensory memory for sounds that have
been perceived, holds representation of initial sounds until entire word has been heard,
seems to last longer than iconic memory)
Short-Term or Working Memory
- Primary Effect: Tendency to recall initial information (i.e. in a list, usually recalls words
early in the list), attributed to rehearsal of items (Long-Term Memory)
- Recency Effect: Tendency to recall later information (i.e. in a list, usually recalls words
last in the list), attributed to either short-term readout or echoic memory
- Working memory: Memory for new information and information retrieved from long-
term memory, fairly fragile and capacity limited, requires great deal of mental effort to
keep things in working memory and once they leave, they are gone, also known as short
term memory (Baddeley, 1993)
- Short-term memory: Immediate memory for stimuli that has been perceived, the limit
seems to be 7 +/- 2 chunks (chunking: process where information is simplified by rules are
learned) and around 20 seconds
- If a person is allowed to rehearse, the information will stay in working memory for as long
as it is rehearsed if not, Peterson and Peterson (1959) showed that information
decays from the memory fairly quickly
www.notesolution.com
- Studies have shown that working memory has a variety of sensory information:
1)Phonological short-term memory: Short term memory for verbal information, involves
either the auditory system or the system that controls speech experiment conducted by
Conrad (1964) showed that visually presented information becomes encoded acoustically
(i.e. B may be written as V as opposed to F T) if this is true, there is some form of
acoustical coding in the working memory (subvocal articulation - an unvoiced speech
utterance) best neurological evidence is conduction aphasia (inability to remember
words that are heard but they can be understood and responded to appropriately [can
understand what they are saying but cant repeat what they hear], caused by damage to
Wernickes and Brocas areas)
- Humans have a remarkable ability to manipulate visual information in working memory
(1971: Shepard and Metzsler found that people were very accurate in judging whether pairs
of shapes were the same or different by flipping them around)
Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory
- Long Term Memory: Memory where information is represented as permanent or near-
permanent basis
- Hebbs dual trace theory was based on the distinction between active processing of
information and latent retention due to structural changes, the change of information from
short-term memory into long-term memory is consolidation, supported by concussion
studies (i.e. football example) retrograde amnesia (backward of time): the loss of ability
to retrieve memories of ones past, particularly memories of episodic or autobiographical
events
- Depth of Processing is done through the way one rehearses information effects the
likelihood of the information entering long-term memory
1) Elaborative Rehearsal (Deep): Rote repetition of information and repeating a given
item over and over again, produce superior memory on conceptual task like most memory
tasks
2) Maintenance Rehearsal (Typically done when trying to remember phone #): Process of
information on a meaningful level, such as forming associations, attending to the meaning
of a material, thinking about it and so on, not nearly as good transferring information to
long-term memory
- In contrast to the traditional model of rehearsal, Craik and Lockhart (1972) thought that
there were are other ways of understanding new information
1) Shallow Processing: Analysis of the superficial characteristics of a stimulus such as
size and shape
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 Memory Overview and Sensory Memory - Memory: Any influence by which past experiences affect current performance the cognitive processes of encoding (sensory information is converted to a form stored in memory system), storing (maintaining information) and retrieving information (locating and using stored information) STIMULUS SENSORY MEMORY WORKING MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY - Relationship Between Working and Long-Term Memory: The purpose is not to just transfer information into long term memory, some say that this is thinking - Visual sensory image or iconic memory is sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has been perceived, aka VISUAL PERSISTENCE, the capacity of iconic memory done by Sperling (1960) with 3 tones and stimulus displays (group of words) (focused on visual sensory memory which termed iconic memory) - Auditory sensory memory or echoic memory is sensory memory for sounds that have been perceived, holds representation of initial sounds until entire word has been heard, seems to last longer than iconic memory) Short-Term or Working Memory - Primary Effect: Tendency to recall initial information (i.e. in a list, usually recalls words early in the list), attributed to rehearsal of items (Long-Term Memory) - Recency Effect: Tendency to recall later information (i.e. in a list, usually recalls words last in the list), attributed to either short-term readout or echoic memory - Working memory: Memory for new information and information retrieved from long- term memory, fairly fragile and capacity limited, requires great deal of mental effort to keep things in working memory and once they leave, they are gone, also known as short term memory (Baddeley, 1993) - Short-term memory: Immediate memory for stimuli that has been perceived, the limit seems to be 7 +- 2 chunks (chunking: process where information is simplified by rules are learned) and around 20 seconds - If a person is allowed to rehearse, the information will stay in working memory for as long as it is rehearsed if not, Peterson and Peterson (1959) showed that information decays from the memory fairly quickly www.notesolution.com
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