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Chapter 3

Psychology - Chapter 3 (Evolution, Heredity and Behaviour)

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 3 Evolution, Heredity and Behaviour
The Development of Evolutionary Theory
Charles Darwin speculated that organisms originate and become adapted to their
environments by biological means biological evolution: changes that take place in the
genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time 
psychologists have taken this into consideration to understand the behaviour, origins
and adaptive significance (effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to
changing environmental conditions)
Darwins journey on the HMS Beagle helped provide:
Artificial Selection (particular animals deliberately mate to produce offspring
with desirable characteristics)
Natural Selection (consequence that since there are physical and behavioural
differences, it will cause the better survivors to produce more offspring than others),
the ability to reproduce successfully (the number of offspring one can produce
compared to another), two aspects of natural selection:
- Variation: Differences found across individuals of same species based on genetic,
biological (size, strength, physiology) and psychological (intelligence, sociability
behaviour) traits found in both phenotype (physical characteristic) and genotype
(genetics)
- Competition: Fighting with others who share the same ecological niche for food,
resources, mates & territory
Biological Evolution (explains how genetic and physical changes occur in animals
over time)
Psychologists want to understand the ultimate causes of behaviour (events and
conditions that slowly shape the behaviour of humans) and proximate causes
(immediate environmental variables that affect behaviour) the continuation of
understanding the psychological adaptations give way to culture (sum of social
knowledge, customs, and behaviour patterns in a group of people)
Heredity and Genetics
Darwins works helped pave the way for genetics (study of genetic makeup of organism
and how it changed physical & behavioural traits) and heredity (sum of all traits &
tendencies inherited from persons parents and other factors)
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Description
Chapter 3 Evolution, Heredity and Behaviour The Development of Evolutionary Theory Charles Darwin speculated that organisms originate and become adapted to their environments by biological means biological evolution: changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time psychologists have taken this into consideration to understand the behaviour, origins and adaptive significance (effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions) Darwins journey on the HMS Beagle helped provide: Artificial Selection (particular animals deliberately mate to produce offspring with desirable characteristics) Natural Selection (consequence that since there are physical and behavioural differences, it will cause the better survivors to produce more offspring than others), the ability to reproduce successfully (the number of offspring one can produce compared to another), two aspects of natural selection: - Variation: Differences found across individuals of same species based on g
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