Textbook Notes (378,694)
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Psychology (9,983)
PSYA02H3 (979)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 15

chapter 15 broken down/high lighted

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 15 - Social Psychology
Social psychology branch of psychology that studies social nature how the actual,
imagined, or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
Social Cognition
Social cognition how people attend to, perceives, interpret, and respond to the social
world
Schemata and Social Cognition
Impression formation the way in which we integrate information about anothers
traits into a coherent sense of whom the person is
Schema a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes
information about a person, place, or thing; aid us in interpreting the world
Central traits personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of
other traits
Primary effect the tendency to form impression of a person based on the initial
information we learn about them
The Self
Self-concept your knowledge, feelings, and ideas about yourself; self-identity
Self a persons distinct individuality
Self-schema mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about
yourself; cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge that constitute the self-concept
Culture and Social Psychology
Cross-cultural psychologist branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on
behaviour
Culture a group of people who live together in a common environment, share customs and
religious beliefs and practices, and often resemble each other genetically
Construe to construe is to interpret it or to explain its meaning
Independent construal emphasizes the uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from others,
and self-reliance
www.notesolution.com
Interdependent construal emphasizes the interconnectedness of people and the role that
others play in developing an individuals self-concept
Attribution the process by which people infer the causes of other peoples behaviour
Attribution theorists says the primary classification that causes a persons behaviour is the
importance of situational (external) and dispositional (internal) factors
External factors stimuli in the physical and social environment, such as living
conditions, other people, societal norms, and laws
Internal factors a persons traits, needs, and intentions
Kelleys Theory of Attribution
We attribute the behaviour of other people to external or internal causes on the basis of 3
types of information: consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency
Consensual behaviour behaviour enacted in common by a large number of people in a
particular situation; is usually attributed to external causes. If a person says good things
about a bar that most people would agree, positive things are attributed to the bar
(external attribution), but if many people disagree with him, then the review reflects
something about the person (internal attribution)
Distinctiveness the extent to which a person performs a particular behaviour only
during a particular type of event or toward a particular person or thing. If the person has
never said so many good things about a bar as he did with this one, then his behaviour
shows high distinctiveness, positive things are attributed to the bar (external
attribution), but if he praises every bar he went to, then his evaluation is seen to attribute
something about himself (internal attribution)
Consistency whether a persons behaviour occurs reliably over time toward another
person, event, or stimulus. If the persons behaviour is characterized by high
distinctiveness and high consensus, then the bar receives the positive attributes (he likes it
better than other bars and others agree; external attribution). If he likes that club every
time he goes (high consistency), then it is clear that the bar is great. But if he has low
consistency with high distinctiveness and high consensus; he likes it once, does not like it
the second time, but likes it the third time. It shows something internal about the person
because it causes confusion (internal attribution)
Attributional Biases
www.notesolution.com
Fundamental attribution error the tendency to overestimate significance of internal
factors and underestimate the significance of external factors in explaining other
peoples behaviour
Belief in a just world belief that the world is a fair place in which people get what they
deserve; people tend to blame the victim when misfortune or tragedy strikes
Actor-observer effect the tendency to see our own behaviour as relatively variable and
strongly influenced by the situation, while we see the behaviour of others as more
stable and due to personal causes; we are not likely to make fundamental attribution
errors to our own behaviour
Self-serving bias tendency to attribute our accomplishments and successes to internal
causes and our failures and mistakes to external causes
False consensus the tendency of an observer to perceive their own response as
representative of a general consensus
Attribution, Heuristics, and Social Cognition
We follow heuristics (general rules) when making decisions. 2 important kinds of heuristics
are representativeness and availability
Representativeness heuristic classification of an object into the category to which it
appears to be the most similar
Base-rate fallacy failure to consider the likelihood that a person, place, or thing is a
member of a particular category on the basis of mathematical probabilities
Availability heuristic judgement of the likelihood or importance of an event by the
ease with which examples of that event come to mind
Priming having recently seen a particular type of event makes it easier to think of other
examples of that event
Medical student syndrome attributing what is learnt to themselves, imagining symptoms
that does not exist
Attitudes and Their Formation
Attitudes evaluations of persons, places, and things
Formation of Attitudes
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15 - Social Psychology Social psychology branch of psychology that studies social nature how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours Social Cognition Social cognition how people attend to, perceives, interpret, and respond to the social world Schemata and Social Cognition Impression formation the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of whom the person is Schema a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing; aid us in interpreting the world Central traits personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traits Primary effect the tendency to form impression of a person based on the initial information we learn about them The Self Self-concept your knowledge, feelings, and ideas about yourself; self-identity Self a persons distinct individuality Self-schema mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about yourself; cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge that constitute the self-concept Culture and Social Psychology Cross-cultural psychologist branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviour Culture a group of people who live together in a common environment, share customs and religious beliefs and practices, and often resemble each other genetically Construe to construe is to interpret it or to explain its meaning Independent construal emphasizes the uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from others, and self-reliance www.notesolution.com
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