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Chapter 6

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Anna Freud, Phallic Stage, Anal Stage

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Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 6 Ego Analytic Psychology
Anna Freud
Neurotic symptoms do not have the meaning in a child’s life that they do in a adults life
Devised an assessment procedure known as diagnostic profile organize and integrate the data
acquired during assessment
o Gives a complete picture
Developmental line refers to a set of ego-id interactions that decrease child’s dependence and
increase’s ego mastery
o Dependency to self reliance
o Sucking to eating
o Wetting / soiling to bowel control
o Irresponsibility to responsibility in body management
o Play to work
o Egocentric to companionship
She suggested that crisis and rebellion in adolescence is normal
Stressed environmental factors in childhood disturbances
While Freud concentrated on unconscious processes
She believed that in order for id drives to emerge in analysis the ego must be aware of the
defence mechanisms it uses. These can be seen in observable behaviour
Identification with our aggressor we begin to admire them
o A great way for us to reduce anxiety when we have no control by acting like someone
who HAS control
Erik Erikson
Showed that the ego is a creative problem solver
Elaborated on Freud’s stages, and included a social deminsion
Included the entire life span in development
Explored the impact of culture and society on personality
An Enhanced Understanding of the Ego
Sided with Hartman
Believed the ego has a positive role of maintaining effective performance instead of a negative
role of avoiding anxiety
The Psychosocial Stages of Development
Made explicit the social dimension while freud concentrated on the biological character
Psychosocial stages stresses the conflicts children encounter at certain periods
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o Negative and positive emotional components in the conflicts, if the conlicts are
resolved, the positive components are reflected more, but if they are not, the negative
Stages or epigenetic in that they are a hierarchy, and are also cumulative
Each stage has a critical period, in which if nothing happens then it will ruin
Each stage has a life crisis in which the person must make a turn one way or another
Each stage results in ego strengths or virtues
Trust Versus Mistrust: Hope
This first stage corresponds with Freuds oral stage
Children are highly dependent
Too much of frustration or indulgence is negative
If infants receive inadequate or rejecting care, they gain mistrust
Trust is when there is a correlation between our needs and the world
A balance of trust and mistrust will lead to the development of the ego strength hope wishes
can be satisfied in the face of disappointment and failure
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt: Will
Corresponds to the anal stage
Autonomy or self control is not limit to toilet training
Using the word “no” is an attempt at autonomy
Tantrums are short periods of loss in autonomy
The virtue that results is will freedom of choice and self control
Initiative Versus Guilt: Purpose
Corresponds with phallic stage
They are in a intrusive mode: intruding into space and people. Have curiosity
Direct activity towards goals and achievement
If this curiosity is reinforced, child will be goal oriented, if it is punished, the child will have
feelings of guilt thinking it is wrong to be curious
Language develops, being to identify with people they admire, fantasies are repressed and
redirected, become more purposeful
The oedipal stage results the establishment of limits in the child
Results in the ego virtue of purpose direction and focus in our efforts
Industry Versus Inferiority: Competence
Corresponds with latency period
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