PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Vijay Award For Favourite Song, Reinforcement, Applied Behavior Analysis

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
CH.15: Using Basic Reinforcement Procedures to Increase a Behaviour By: Naela.S
Identifying and Strengthening Positive Reinforcers
can generate hunches bout what consequences will have high reward value can be first step in
identifying potential reinforcers for a particular individual
take into account the age & gender: 1st grader prefers tangible or consumable (candy)
reinforces over social reinforcer like praise // teenager values entertainment, music recordings,
clothing as reinforcers
Identifying Potential Reinforcers
programmed reinforcers- deliberately provided with goal of increasing specific behaviours
Table 15.1- types of positive reinforcers
Type of Reinforcer Definition
Tangible/consumable
reinforcers
Items tht are material objects, such as toys or musical recordings, or tht we can eat or
drink
Activity
reinforcer
Opportunities to engage in activities we would choose to do when we have a free
choice
Social reinforcer Interpersonal acts, such as praise or smile, by other ppl
Feedback reinforcer Info tht assesses or guides our performance of a behaviour
Tokens reinforcer Conditioned reinforcers tht can be exchanged for backup reward, such as tangible or
activity reinforcer
Interviews and Questionnaires
identifying potential reinforcers by asking individuals what items/experiences they like or find
pleasurable:
--> interview or survey (e.g. Preferred Items & Experiences Questionnaire (PIEQ) for adolescents
& adults to identify potential reinforcers from the list & can also add potential reinforcers tht
weren't on list)
limitations of using indirect assessment methods:
1.) may be less accurate than direct methods
2.) ppl whose verbal abilities are limited (young children, ppl with developmental disabilities)
may be unable to answer questions when items read to them
3.) ppl who are extremely depressed may feel that nothing gives them pleasure
Direct Assessment Methods
direct assessment methods: observing & recording individual’s reactions toward stimuli when
the occur/ are available
2 ways:
-->naturalistic observation- observing ppl in natural env't & recording freq./duration of
duration of behaviour
identifies which high-probability behaviours person often performs which can serve as activity
reinforcers
-->structured tests- presenting previously selected set of stimuli & assessing which ones the
person prefers
2 ways: (a) one at time, while collecting data on how soon person approaches or reaches for
stimuli (b) two or more at time, while collecting data on which ones person chooses
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Enhancing Reinforcer Effectiveness
diff types of establishing operations (EOs) that can help enhance reinforcer effectiveness:
reinforcer sampling: presenting small or brief sample of the consequence before the behaviour
occurs to increase likelihood tht person will make response and get reinforcer
e.g. Costco allowing customers to sample items so they can buy in larger quantities
modeling: individuals who see others receiving & enjoying pleasant consequences for their
behaviour tend to increase value they place on these consequences & copy behaviour they saw
other ppl do
e.g. elementary children w/ mental retardation; teacher praised students who were in seats &
paying attention which increased attentive behaviour of children who were praised and (b/c
modeling) children who sat near them
explaining or demonstrating the value of the reinforcer (esp. important for token reinforcers
which have no value unless explained)
ppl who can't understand token reinforcement system, will need to have token associated
repeatedly w/ backup reinforcers
public posting of performance data (esp. if reinforcer is feedback or praise)
e.g. public posting of sports skills performance data (based on self-selected goals) enhances
effectiveness of feedback for athletes
using varied reinforcers: effectiveness of single reinforcer declines with frequent use b/c of
satiation or person gets “used to” or “tired of” particular reinforcer
e.g. children who get to listen to snippet of their favourite song as reward for doing tasks may
become less interested in hearing tht music so there should be VARIETY of songs from a
playlist which they can choose from
How to Administer Positive Reinforcement
Reduce Extraneous Counterproductive Reinforcers
3 ways to stop ppl from reinforcing someone's problem behaviour:
-->describe the situation & ask them to stop reinforcing problem behaviour
-->reinforce them for not reinforcing target person's problem behaviour ; e.g. besides giving
Lucy tokens to stop disruptive behaviour in class, & to reduce social reinforcers she mite've
received from other students for disruptive behaviour—if Lucy had tantrum, taken back of the
room so classmates cudn't watch her & given candy if they didn't turn around
-->having other people share in the rewards the individual earns for improved behaviour ; e.g
whole class gets pizza party if Lucy doesn't throw tantrums for four days
behaviour analysts usually have enough control of person's env't to eliminate counterproductive
reinforcer :
->occurs in training sessions with children who have used their problem behaviours (self-
injurious behaviour), to escape sessions –eliminating escape involves process of
extinction- ending negative reinforcement form escaping session
what if we can't control existing reinforcement? Provide strong positive reinforcer for an
alternative behaviour
--->e.g. if kids with devptl disabilities complied with training requests, children cud choose
their reinforcement: break from training for 30 sec (negative reinforcement) or favourite food
item (positive reinforcement) 4/5 kids chose food
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Document Summary

Ch. 15: using basic reinforcement procedures to increase a behaviour by: naela. s. Identifying potential reinforcers programmed reinforcers- deliberately provided with goal of increasing specific behaviours. Items tht are material objects, such as toys or musical recordings, or tht we can eat or drink. Opportunities to engage in activities we would choose to do when we have a free choice. Interpersonal acts, such as praise or smile, by other ppl. Info tht assesses or guides our performance of a behaviour. Conditioned reinforcers tht can be exchanged for backup reward, such as tangible or activity reinforcer. Interviews and questionnaires identifying potential reinforcers by asking individuals what items/experiences they like or find pleasurable: -> interview or survey (e. g. preferred items & experiences questionnaire (pieq) for adolescents. & adults to identify potential reinforcers from the list & can also add potential reinforcers tht weren"t on list) limitations of using indirect assessment methods: 1. ) may be less accurate than direct methods.

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