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Chapter 16

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Defecation, Behavior Management, Sheltered Workshop


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Chapter
16

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CHAPTER 16: TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT
LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
Helping Carole Have a Successful Class Presentation
Worried about receiving a bad grade after receiving one earlier in the year
Suggested use of imagery at practices to simulate aspects of the environment that will be
encountered at the competition- used by athletes
Practiced in the auditorium she will present in
increase the chances that successful practice performance will transfer to the setting of
the competition
GENERALITY
concerned with two types of situations: (a) the training situation(s)the setting(s) in
which the behavior is initially strengthened; and
(b) the target situation(s)the setting(s) in which we want the behavior to occur
A behavior change is said to have generality to the extent that the following occur:
o (a) stimulus generalization: the trained behavior transfers from the training
situation(s) to the target situation(s) (which is usually the natural environment)
o (b) response generalization: training leads to the development of new behavior that
has not been specifically trained
o (c) behavior maintenance: the trained behavior persists in the target situation(s)
over time
o Situation can refer to settings or stimuli
PROGRAMMING GENERALITY OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR
includes strategies of programming for stimulus generalization, response generalization,
and behavior maintenance
Programming Operant Stimulus Generalization
stimulus generalization refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence
of a stimulus or situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the
presence of another stimulus or situation
more similar the training and target situations are, the more stimulus generalization there
will be between them
four main strategies for programming operant stimulus generalization
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Train in the Target Situation
make the final stages of the training situation similar to the target situation in as many
ways as possible
o Best to train in the target situation itself (Carole)
EXAMPLE: teach children with autism to engage in appropriate social play during
recess
o behavior modifier conducted training during recess on the playground and initiated
the interactions of the children and reinforced social play
o During the target situation, the behavior modifier was not present
Vary the Training Conditions
If behaviors are brought under the control of a wide variety of stimuli during training,
then the probability of some of those stimuli being present in the target situation increases
o Increasing probability of generalizability
EXAMPLE: a golfer who practices making putts when it is cold, windy, hot, calm, or
noisy is more likely to make putts during an actual competition if one or more of those
conditions are encountered
Program Common Stimuli
program common stimuli deliberately by developing the behavior to specific stimuli that
are present in the training settings, and then ensuring that those stimuli are in the target
settings
EXAMPLE: social and academic classroom behaviors were taught to children in a
remedial classroom
o Stimulus generalization to the regular academic classroom was ensured by using
the same academic materials in both classrooms
EXAMPLE: teaching children with autism to seek help from store employees (the
common stimuli) when lost in a retail store
o During training, the children learned to seek help from employees in one or more
actual retail storesTarget, Walmart, and Best Buy- generalized to stores not
trained in
Useful to bring the desired behavior under the control of instructions or rules that an
individual can rehearse in novel situations
o said to be using a self-mediated physical or verbal stimulus
EAMPLE: reinforcing self-mediated verbal-stimuli can be used successfully with 3- to
5-year-old children in what is called correspondence training
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o children were taught to do what they said they were going to do (e.g., play with a
specific toy) at a later time
o learned to do this more effectively if they repeated saying what they were going to
do during the interval before they were to perform the behavior
o behavior of repeated statements to themselves about what they were going to do
and doing it generalized to other statements that the children made regarding what
they were going to do at a later time
EXAMPLE: young figure skater used a self-mediated verbal stimulus to transfer skilled
skating performance from practices to competitions
o Often missed landings because rushed in the excitement of competition
o she inserted into her routine the word easy (said very slowly and stretched out) just
before stepping onto her takeoff foot as a prompt to control the speed of the takeoff
Train Sufficient Stimulus Exemplars
a common-element stimulus class is a set of stimuli that have some physical
characteristic in common
o likely to have many members
The members of a common-element stimulus class are often referred to as exemplars of
that class
A generalization tactic considered to be one of the most valuable for programming
generality is called training sufficient stimulus exemplars
EXAMPLE: if a child is taught to say “dog” when viewing several exemplars of dogs,
then the child is likely to generalize and refer to any variety of dog as a “dog”
EXAMPLE: teaching children with autism to share some desirable items within a given
category (e.g., art, snacks, toys) and finding that the children will share other items within
the same category
o Thus, children who are taught to share crayons, dot paint, and markers will more
likely share colored pencils
EXAMPLE: teaching children to read
o To teach children a long passage with a high degree of accuracy is to teach them to
read a number of short passages that, in total, contain the same words as the larger
passage
a variation of training sufficient stimulus exemplars referred to as general case
programming
o teacher begins by identifying the range of relevant stimulus situations to which a
learner will be expected to respond and the response variations that might be
required
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