Behavior Modificatio ch6.docx

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4 Apr 2012
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Behavior Modification Chapter 6
Punishing
Defining Punishment
- A person engages in a behavior and there was an immediate consequence
that made it unlikely that the person would engage in the behavior again
- Ex. Kathy reaches over to pet the dog and she gets bit, she will therefore
not engage in that behavior again
- Punishment:
o A particular behavior occurs
o A consequence immediately follows the behavior
o As a result the behavior is less likely to occur again in the future
- A punisher is a consequence that makes it less likely for a particular
behavior to occur again in the future
- A stimulus or event is a punished when it decrease the frequency of the
behavior it follows
- Ex. Juan hits his sister until she cries, as a result his mother spanks him BUT
this does not stop him from engaging in the behavior the next day. WHY?
o Its positive reinforcement because his hitting results in the
presentation of a consequence (spanking and crying) and therefore
he will engage in the behavior again
- Therefore punishment cannot be defined as something that Is unpleasant or
aversive it is something that will DECREASE the behavior in Juan’s case
the spanking may be unfavorable but it does not result in him stopping.
- Half to look at whether the punishment is decreasing behavior immediately
or in the future ( spanking seems to be an IMMEDIATE decrease in behavior
but is not lasting)
- Parents are negatively reinforced to continue spanking the child because it
stops the aversive behavior temporarily
A Comman Misconception about Punishment
- Most people define punishment as something that is used to stop behavior
but also has elements of retribution the intent to hurt someone who has
commited a crime
- In behavior mod its used diff does not have anything to do with wrong or
dangerous
- The way that society sees punishment is diff from how its used in behavior
modification
Positive and Negative Punishment
- POSITIVE:
o The occurrence of behavior
o Followed by the presence of an aversive stimulus
o The behavior is less likely to occur in the future
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- Ex. To stop self injurious behavior, shocked patients with electric shock
every time they tried to hurt themselves
- Ex. Rumination is infants when they regurgitate their food into the mouth
and swallow again when they did that the researchers put lemon juice in
their mouths
- NEGATIVE
o The occurrence of the behavior
o The removal of the reinforcing stimulus
o The behavior is less likely to occur in the future
o Two types: time out from positive reinforce or response cost
- Difference between negative and extinction
o Johnny interrupts his parents
o Extinction = removing his parent’s attention when he interrupts
o Negative = losing some other reinforce like money or TV watching
when he interrupts
- Time out a person is removed from the reinforcing situation for a brief
period of time after the behavior occurs
o The problem behavior was followed by the loss of access to attention
from the teacher and other reinforcers in the classroom
o By taking the child away from the reinfo
o rcers the aggressive behavior decreases
- Punishment results in the immediate decrease in the target behavior
whereas extinction takes longer for the behavior to decrease and involves
extinction bursts
- Response Cost they earned points which could be traded in for snacks &
money and when they showed up late they LOSS some of those points
- In each case: the presentation or removal of a stimulus as a consequence of
behavior functioned as punishment
Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers
- Behaviors that produce painful or extreme stimulus are naturally weakened,
and behaviors that result in escape or avoidance of such stimulation have
biological important these are called unconditioned punishers
- Ex. Extreme heat or cold, electric shock, sharp object or a forceful blow
- We learn not to put our hands in fire, look directly in the sun, touch sharp
objects or go barefoot in snow because they have a natural punishing
consequence
- Conditioned punishers are stimuli or events that function as punishers after
being pair with an unconditioned punisher or existing conditioned punisher
- The word “no” is a common conditioned punisher
- Ex. You got to reach for an outlet and your parent says “no”, your less likely
to reach for it again
- It is considered a generalized conditioned punisher can be paired with a
variety of unconditioned and conditioned punishers
- Ex. Threats of harm are often conditioned punishers because they are
associated with a painful stimulus in the past
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