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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 txtbook notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 17: Using Punishment Time-out & Response Cost
Punishment - when a behaviour is followed by consequences that result in decrease
in the future probability of the behaviour positive & negative punishment
behaviour is weakened
oPositive Punishment involves consequences that involve presentation of stimulus
event
oNegative Punishment involves consequences that involve removal of a stimulus
event
Punishment procedure is typically used only after functional non-aversive
intervention (Ch 13- 16) have been implemented or considered
Using punishment procedure can be controversial may violate rights of person
being treated & positive punishment involve presenting aversive stimulus; thus, may
bring pain/ discomfort for the person receiving the treatment
oBut to keep in mind aversive stimulus in BM is defined by its effects on the
behaviour not in terms of painful/ unpleasant feeling
If punishment is used it is most often a negative reinforcement (removing
reinforcement after that behaviour)
Time- Out
Cheryl broke her toys & others teacher took her to corner & told her it was
wrong to do so & sit there & teacher praised others after 2 min, she came took the
child & when Cheryl didnt act out teacher praised her after time outs, her
behaviour decreased greatly
oRemoved from reinforcer activity for few min contingent on an instance of the
problem behaviour is called Time-Out
Kenny similar situation to Cheryl w/ reinforcing situation being able to watch TV
& play w/ toys & similar solution Time-outs in each occasion the child was
removed from the reinforcing situation for brief period
Other procedures used in conjunction w/ time-outs Differential Reinforcement 
where they praise for appropriate behaviour
oAlso w/ Kenny used stimulus control, where close proximity of parents & eye-
contact w/ him became discriminative stimulus in presence of which his refusal
behaviour was punished
Types of Time-Out
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Time-out: loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the
problem behaviour& result is the decrease in the probability of the problem
behaviour
oTime-out is short for time-out from positive reinforcement
2 types: Non-exclusionary time-out & Exclusionary time-out - both contingent on the
occurrence of a problem behaviour
Non-exclusionary time-out: the person is removed from all sources of reinforcement
BUT NOT removed from the room where the problem behaviour took place
oMost likely to be used if person can be removed from reinforcing activities/
interactions while still remaining in the room & presence of the person will not
be disruptive to others in the environment if neither criteria can be met, then
Exclusionary time-out will be used
Exclusionary time-out person is briefly removed from the reinforcing environment
typically to another room
Using Reinforcement w/ Time-out
When using punishment (e.g. time-out), should also use reinforcement procedure
time-out would decrease a problem behaviour & differential reinforcement
procedures increases an alternative behaviour (DRA) OR provides the reinforcer for
the absence of the problem behaviour (DRO)
osince time-out eliminates access to positive reinforcers, is important for person to
have access to positive reinforcers via DRA/ DRO because w/out DRA/ DRO there
would be NET LOSS in reinforcement; thus, behaviour could be more likely to
remerge after treatment
Consideration in Using Time-Out
What is the Function of the Problem Behaviour? is appropriate to use w/
problem behaviours that are maintained by positive reinforcement involving social or
tangible reinforcers
oAlso, time-in environment (where problem behaviour took place) must consists of
reinforcing activities/ interactions for time-out to be effective; thus, time-out area
should be not reinforcing/ is less reinforcing
oNot appropriate to use w/ problem behaviours maintained by negative
reinforcement because time-out takes the person from ongoing activities/
interactions in the room, it would negatively reinforce any behaviour that was
maintained by escape
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E.g.: Aggressive behaviour & is negatively reinforced by escape from education
demands time-out environment would then be less aversive than time-in
environment
oNot appropriate to use w/ problem behaviours maintained by sensory stimulation
(automatic reinforcement) because it would not function as time-out from positive
reinforcement
They could still engage in it while alone in the time-out area since the
behaviour is reinforced automatically by sensory stimulation it produces, time-
out would be reinforcing (especially when they could engage in it w/out
interruption)
Is Time-Out Practical in the Given Situation? Is practical when change agents
can implement the procedure successfully & physical environment is conductive to
its use
ochange agent often must PHYSICALLY escort the client to the time-out area
some cases met w/ aggression or physical confrontation especially if the client
is large
oConsider whether there is an appropriate room/ area to use for time-out area
must be place where client DOESNT have access to any positive reinforcers
E.g. if child is sent to hallway for time-out & if his friend is there to talk to
him then is not effective
oSometimes room is built or existing room is modified specifically for use as time-
out room should be safe, well-lighted & barren
Also, have observation window (one way is best- client cannot see the observer)
so that client could be observed during time-out]
Also shouldnt have lock this safeguard misuse of time-out (where change
agent could lock door & leave client unattended in the room or vice versa w/
client locking the door)
Is Time-Out Safe? Time-out room must not contain any objects that clients could
use to hurt themselves & change agent should observe them through the duration of
time to ensure they dont hurt themselves either
oEspecially important for clients who engage in violent, aggressive or self-
injurious behaviour
Is the Time-out Period Brief? Should be brief & contingent on the problem
behaviour client should be returned to the time-in environment as soon as
possible & allowed to return normal activities
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Description
Chapter 17: Using Punishment Time-out & Response Cost Punishment - when a behaviour is followed by consequences that result in decrease in the future probability of the behaviour positive & negative punishment behaviour is weakened o Positive Punishment involves consequences that involve presentation of stimulus event o Negative Punishment involves consequences that involve removal of a stimulus event Punishment procedure is typically used only after functional non-aversive intervention (Ch 13- 16) have been implemented or considered Using punishment procedure can be controver sial ay violate rights of person being treated & positive punishment involve presenting aversive stimulus; thus, may bring pain discomfort for the person receiving the treatment o But to keep in mind aversive stimulus in BM is defined by its effects on the behaviour not in terms of painful unpleasant feeling If punishment is used it is most often a negative reinforcement (removing reinforcement after that behaviour) Time- Out Cheryl broke her toys & others teacher took her to corner & told her it was wrong to do so & sit there & teacher praised otheasfter 2 min, she came took the child & when Cheryl didnt act out teacher praised her after time outs, her behaviour decreased greatly o Removed from reinforcer activity for few min contingent on an instance of the problem behaviour is called Time-Out Kenny similar situation to Cheryl w reinforcing situation being able to watch TV & play w toys & similar solutin Time-outs in each occasion the child was removed from the reinforcing situation for brief period Other procedures used in conjunction w time-o utDifferential Reinforcement where they praise for appropriate behaviour o Also w Kenny used stimulus control, where close proximity of parents & eye- contact w him became discriminative stimulus in presence of which his refusal behaviour was punished Types of Time-Out www.notesolution.com
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