Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYB57H3 (300)
Chapter 1

PSYB57H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Wax Tablet, B. F. Skinner, Tabula Rasa


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB57H3
Professor
Gabriela Ilie
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1
Attention: mental focus on stimulus
Perception: interpreting sensory information
Pattern Recognition: classifying stimulus into a category
Memory: storage facilities and retrieval of conigition
Recognition: see as familiar
Recall: determine from previous experience
Reasoning/problem solving: techniques and strategies to figure things out
Knowledge representation: knowledge accumulated in a life time
Language: verbal sounds (nonverbal cues/signals)
Decision making: deal with a situation
Several cognitive processes occur simultaneously or very close in time
oImpossible to specify which process
Plato
Memory storage is like writing on a wax tablet
Mind is an aviary where birds are flying, and memory is catching a bird,
sometimes you catch, sometimes only nearby bird
Empiricism
Locke, Hume, Stuart Mill
oLocke: Tabula Rasa – blank slate
oHume: mind is in the body
Empiricism: Knowledge comes from experience – empirical information
collected from senses
Recognizes difference in genetics, but human nature is malleable and changeable.
People are the way they are because of previous learning
Association: mechanism of learning (Locke). Two distinct ideas or experiences
that join because they occur to be presented at the same time.
Environment plays a role in determining one’s intellect and abilities
Natvism
Plato, Descartes, Kant
Nativism: Role of native ability in learning and acquisition of abilities
Differences in original, biological endowment
Cognitive functions built in and hardwired like short term memory.
Qualim: essence of the mind

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Structuralism
Wundt, Titchener, Baldwin
Wundt: first institute for research in experimental psychology want to discover
science of the mind: laws and principles of our conscious
oWundt wanted to find the mental elements to describe complex mental
phenomena – Principles of Physiological Psychology
James Baldwin: first psychological laboratory in Canada
oMental development in children, influence on Piaget
Introspection: what is the mind made of influenced by a lab setting, cannot
abstract pure essence (many extra variables). Report on basic elements of
consciousness, not internal perception but experimental self observation
Wundt method: Present observers with stimuli and ask to describe conscious
experiences – raw materials of consciousness were sensory
oConscious thought or ideas could be defined in four properties
Mode: visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory
Quality (colour, shape texture)
Intensity
Duration
Wundt believe that people could detect the inner workings of mind, structuralism:
is focus on the elemental components of mind – conscious experience
Structuralism: Elemental components of the mind
Functionalism
William James – The Principles of Psychology
oExplanation of our experience – why does our mind work the way it does?
Functionalism: the way the mind works has great deal to do with function
Habit: flywheel of society, mechanism to keep behaviour within bounds
oInevitable and powerful force avoid bad habits, establish good ones
seize on opportunities to act on resolution and to put fort effort to keep the
faculty of effort alive. Do not allow exceptions
Functionalist drew on Darwin evolutionary theory and extend to biological
conceptions of adaptions
Functionalist study in real life situation belief that organisms in whole real life
tasks should be subject. (contrast with structuralist who believe lab setting is
needed for true nature of the mind)
Function more important than content
Behaviourism
Classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning (Pavlov, Thorndike)
Rejects introspection - untestable

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References to unobservable and subjective mental states and processes were
banished – study of behaviour
Introspection is subjective, and unable to resolve disagreements.
Watson regarded mental phenomena as simple physiological responses.
Banishing mental phenomena was not helpful, but encouraged thinking measures
and methods helped develop more protocols.
BF Skinner believed in mental images, and they were subjects of study and
were not different from behaviourial events.
oRejected mental representations (internal depictions of information),
which he says are merely internal copies of external stimuli
Triggered by external stimuli, functional relationship
Gestalt Psychology
Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler
1. Psychology had to be analyzed and studied in their entirety and not its parts
2. Mind imposes structure and organization on stimuli, and organizes into whole
rather than discrete parts.
3. Melody is not individual sounds -> melodic lines
4. Rejected functionalism, behaviouralism, and structuralism.
5. Expectations and biases
oTolman: scientist that concluded research on rats that context matters:
expectancy.
Individual Differences
Sir Francis Galton
Inspired by Darwin’s natural selection.
Inheritance of intellect (intelligence, smartness, eminence)
Used of a mathematical analysis, using statistics test and questionnaires inspire
present day innovations.
Studied mental imagery
The Cognitive Revolution
Series of psychological investigation, rejection of behaviourist assumption that
mental events and states did not exist and were beyond scientific study
Series of new psychological investigation post WW2
oMainly a rejection of behaviourist assumption that mental events were
beyond study since they did not exist.
oPeople came to accept that mental events and states could be studied
scientifically.
1. Human factors engineering
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