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Chapter 9

PSYB57 chapter 9

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George Cree

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Chapter 9 Concepts and Generic Knowledge Conceptsknowledgedaily functioning DEFINITIONS WHAT WE DO WHEN WE KNOW WHAT A DOG ISWhat possibility about what knowledge isis that it is like a dictionary definition o Could use definition as checklist when applying knowledge ie what does a dog and a horse have in commonLudwig Wittgenstein said the difficulty with this proposal was that it was sometimes difficult to give full definitions to some terms even after thousands of years of trying to ie virtue knowledge o For both complex and simple terms it iseasy to come up with plausible definitions but it is also very easy to find exceptions to it Family ResemblanceNeed way of identifying concepts that highlights similarities within a category o One way is to keep contents f definition but be more flexible is use of definitionWittgenstein proposed that members of a category have family resemblancea matter of degree o No features that all aspects of a term have just like how no one member has all the defining features of a familywhy a rigid definition isnt possiblePROTOTYPES AND TYPICALITY EFFECTS Prototype theory In the mind there is a representation of the ideal dog the prototypeCompare real life examples of prototype to the ideal prototype in your mind no similarities object not being in that particular category Prototype is usually an average of the different members within a category that you have encountered o Note different people may have different prototypesFuzzy Boundaries and Graded MembershipKnowing a concept means having a mental representation of concepts prototypeSince prototype theory characterizes from the centre the prototype and no by boundaries definitions theres no categories between boundaries and thus each category will havefuzzy boundaries o Fuzzy boundaries means that not all category members are evenSome are more or less in a category since there arent any definite boundariesprototype categorizing has Graded Membership
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