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Chapter 3

chapter 3

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB57H3
Professor
Gabriela Ilie

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Chapter 3
PERCEPTION
Perception--take sensory input and interpret it meaningfully.
Distal stimulus proximal stimulus (the reception of info and its
registration by a sense organ)--retinal image (2D, its size depends on
your distance from the window and the objects beyond, upside down,
reversed) percept
Size constancy
Pattern recognition (categorization)
GESTALT APPROACHES TO PERCEPTION
Form perception
Goblet/faces
Subjective contours
The perception is not completely determined by the stimulus display; it
requires the perceivers active participation.
Perceivers follow certain laws or principles of organization in coming
to their interpretation. The whole is not the same as the sum of its
parts, rejected the claim that we recognize objects by identifying
individual features or parts.
Gestalt principles of perceptual organization
Principle of proximity
Principle of similarity
Principle of good continuation
Principle of closure
Principle of common fate
www.notesolution.com
Law of Pragnanz
All the possible ways of interpreting a display, we will tend to select the
organization that yields the simplest and most stable shape or form.
BOTTOM-UP PROCESSES
Bottom-up (data-driven)
The perceiver starts w/ small bits of info from the environment that she
combines in various ways to form a percept.
Form a perception from only the info in the distal stimulus
the system works in one direction, starting from the input and proceeding
to a final interpretation. Whatever happens at a given point is unaffected by
later processing; the system has no way of going back to an earlier point to
make adjustment. Relatively uninfluenced by expectations or previous
learning, involve automatic, reflexive processing that occurs even when the
perceiver is passively regarding the info.
Top-down (theory-driven)
The perceiver’s expectations, theories, or concepts guide the selection and
combination of the info in the pattern recognition process.
Template Matching
Templates
Previously stored patterns
Comparing incoming info to the templates we have stored, and looking for a
match.
Problems
An impossibly large number of templates
How to recognize new objects
Ppl recognize many patterns as more of less the same thing,
even when the stimulus patterns differ greatly.
www.notesolution.com
Template matching works only w/ relatively clean stimuli, for which
we know ahead of time what templates may be relevant.
Featural Analysis
Features
Recognition of a whole object, depends on recognition of its feature
Specific kinds of stimuli could cause cells to fire more frequently
Edge detectors—respond strongly to borders btw light and dark
Bug detectors—respond selectively to moving edges, most
vigorously when a small, dark dot moved across the field of
vision
Horizontal-line detectors
Vertical-line detectors
Certain detectors appear to scan input patterns, looking for a
particular feature. If that feature is present, the detectors respond
rapidly. Each detector, then, appears designed to detect the
presence of just one kind of feature in an input pattern. Thus,
confirms the applicability of the Featural analysis model.
Additional evidence—ppl are more likely to confuse a G w/ a C than
w/ an F: Because C and G share many features.
Visual search task
Find Q or Z
Auditory perception of syllables that share many articulatory features.
Pandemonium
Demons at the bottom level of processing scan the input, and demons at
higher levels scan the output from lower-level demons.
The first type of demons are image demons, which convert the
proximal stimulus into representations, or internal depictions of
info, that higher-level demons can assess. Each representation is
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 3 PERCEPTION Perception--take sensory input and interpret it meaningfully. Distal stimulusproximal stimulus (the reception of info and its registration by a sense organ)--retinal image (2D, its size depends on your distance from the window and the objects beyond, upside down, reversed) percept Size constancy Pattern recognition (categorization) GESTALT APPROACHES TO PERCEPTION Form perception Gobletfaces Subjective contours The perception is not completely determined by the stimulus display; it requires the perceivers active participation. Perceivers follow certain laws or principles of organization in coming to their interpretation. The whole is not the same as the sum of its parts, rejected the claim that we recognize objects by identifying individual features or parts. Gestalt principles of perceptual organization Principle of proximity Principle of similarity Principle of good continuation Principle of closure Principle of common fate www.notesolution.com
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