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Chapter 6

PSYC12H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Stereotype Threat, Erving Goffman, System On A Chip

Course Code
Michael Inzlicht

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- Erving Goffman referred to the unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations as
being indicators of stigma. The stigmatized person is one who is reduced in our minds frm a
whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one
- They’re characteristics tht mke tht mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited, spoiled or
- Goffman denoted 3 types of stigmas: abominations of the body (like being over-weight);
blemishes of individual character (ex: drunkness); and tribal stigmas of race, nation, and
religion (prejudice against another race)
- Prev rsrch indicates individuals faced with external threats show stronger ingrp identification.
Rsrch found tht ppl differ in degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group.
- High identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their grp, esp when it has a
negative image. They derive much of their self-esteem frm their identification as a grp
members. They seek collective strategies against group threat
- Low identifiers are more likely to dissociate themselves frm the grp, esp when grp has a neg
image. They feel no self affinity toward or derive no self-esteem from their grp
- Stereotype threat is when ur aware of the stereotype, you try to disconfirm it but at the end
you behave in a counter stereotypical fashion
- Look at slides for more information
- True even for gender- women as stereotype threat when with men
- Cheryn and Bodenhauses examined the influence of salient pos stereotypes on one’s task
performance. If the stereotype abt your grp is tht u do well on a task could it enhance or
impair performance? Asian American were expose to an identity salience manipulation where
they completed survey abt their ethnic grp, gender, or ind identity. Then completed test of
math skills. Results: when participants’ ethnic identity was made salient, their math
performance was worse than when personal id or gender id was made salient. Another study
found opposite results, when Asian Am women had their ethnic id made salient they
performed btr on math test than when no id or gender was made salient.
- More rsrch is needed to identify the specific additive and individual effects tht stereoypes abt
one’s various ingrps can have on one’s cogn nd behaviours
- Disidentification: individuals disengage their identity from achievement domain in qs,
such tht their self esteem and self competence is preserved and shielded from the
negative effects of associating identity with performance on a stereotype relevant
- What trigger’s disidentification? Either devaluing the importance of the stereotype threat
domain or discounting the validity and self-diagnostic of outcomes on the stereotype threat
dimension, the stigmatized can psychologically disengage from the stereotype threat
dimension and protect their self-esteem.
- In math test, no gender difference women performed well but when there is gender difference
they performed worse than men. It indicates that women under strong stereotype threat they
disidentify with math careers than women under weak stereotype threat (Steel et al.)
- we achieve social identity theory through own accomplishments and group membership
- Individuals who blve tht their stigmatize condtn is cntrllable may be more likely to feel tht neg
evaluation of them are justified and will be more likely to feel lower self-esteem. Belvng tht
one’s stigma is uncontrollable will lead the stigmatize individual to resist the blame for the
stigma, to attribute neg evaluation to prejudice and maintain self-esteem
Denial of Discrimination
- What determines whether a member of a stigmatized grp perceived the behaviour of a
nonstigmatized person as discrimination or prejudice? Rsrch mkes a compelling case that the
degree to which the stigmatized individual believes in an ideology tht legitimizes existing
status differences btwn grps will infleunces their perceptions of personal communication
- The more individual does not endore such an ideology and believes in in mobility of grp
members, the less likely it is tht neg behaviour/evaluations frm the nonstigmatized individual
will be interpreted as instances of discrimination or prejudice
- Another factor tht can influence whether a stigmatized grp member attributes behaviour of a
nonstigmatized individual to the prejudice and discrimination is the social costs involved with
doing so.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
- It refers to the phenomenon by which a perceiver’s expectations abt a target eventually lead
tht target to behave in ways that confirm those expectations.
- Stigmatized grps view themselves as having a small number of stereotypic, neg characteristics
tht the grp members have internalized the neg views of the grp tht the majority members
directly and indirectly communicate to them.
- Allport blvd tht this may occur in minority grps b.c if the minority grp acknowledged tht their
grp had as much worth as other grps in society, it would bring tremendous psych discomfort
in that it causes the stigmatized individual to qs the structure of soc reality
- SFP do not occur when the target is aware of the perceiver’s expectations.
- Major and colleagues suggest 4 ways the stigmatized can maintain their self-esteem:
1. Attributing neg evaluations and reactions of others to prejudice
2. Devaluing outcomes on which their grp compares poorlywith other grp
3. Comparing one’s stigmatized ingrp with other stigmatized grps rather than to
nonstigmatized grps
4. Psychologically disengaging their self-esteem from feedback in domains in which their
group is at a disadvantage
- Self-esteemm in stigmatized indviduals seems to be fairly resilient against the negative
influence of others’ prejudice and stereotyped
Dynamic Nature of Interactions
- Typical intergroup interaction is characterized by some anxiety.
- For high prejudice majority members, anxiety msy reflect discomfort (sometimes driven by
strong neg feelings like disgust or anger) with minority grp and their preference to avoid
minority grp altogether
- Low prejudice individual- need to distuish btwn those who had many intergrp experiences
(they’re skilled) and those have few intergrp itneractions (intergrp unskilled). Both grps are
highly motivated to indicate the minority grp ind v tht they’re not prejudiced.
- Intergrp skilled majority members know hw to best to present their low prejudice self to the
other individual, and they feel little or no anxiety in the interaction
- Study showed that one’s stigma being visible or invisible mkes a big difference in that person’s
interaction with a non-stigmatized person. Visible stigmas have a spoiled identity. Results
indicated tht invisible and overly stigmatized persons reacted differently to the interaction.
Individuals with visible stigmas were much less likely to rmr interaction details, they rmrd
details abt the partner’s appearance and room only. Frable et al. suggest tht invisible deviants
need to pay close attention to all info tht might be relevant to exposing their condition.
- Devine’s model of the dynamic nature of itnergrp interactions articulates hw expectations,
motivations and prejudices can influence and can be influenced by the perceptions of other
individual’s behaviour
- Its another factor that fuels the negative expectancies for the intergroup interaction is the
notion that the majority and minority have different perspectives from which they approach
an understanding of the world
Intergroup Anxiety
- Most of the past rsrch on reactions to the outgrp has typically involved imagining an itnergrp
scenario and hw u might think and feel in such a situation
- Metastereotype is one’s perceptions of another group’s stereotypes of one’s group.
Attributional Ambiguity
- In attempting to understand the reasons for others’ behaviour toward them, the stigmatized
are confronted with another possible causal explanation: others’ reaction (often based on
stereotypes and prejudices) to their stigma. Thus, because the stigmatize are well familiar
with the stereotypes and prejudices that exist abt their grp, they’re continually faced with