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Chapter

textbook studiyguide


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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DEFINING STEREOTYPE
LippmannsStereotype
Stereotype derives from a term to describe a painting process in which fixed casts of material
are reproduced
Lippmann used this term to describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something
having similar attributes based on a common feature shared by each
He believed that these representations are more like templates into which we try to simplify
confusing information
He was accurate in his theory about the origin of stereotyping stereotypes tell us what social
information is important to perceive and to disregard
The content of stereotype is mainly determined by culture
Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral
Stereotype was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, non-analytic condition
Characterized as rigid thinking and moral defectiveness
Researchers began to move away from the mortality or correctness of the stereotype
Allport believe that a stereotype was an exaggerated belief associated with a category
The Social-Cognition Definition
With the birth of social cognition, researchers began to believe that stereotyping was a automatic
process of categorization
Inherent in the nature of the way humans think about the world
Brigham: stereotype is the generalization made about a …group concerning a trait attribution,
which is consider to be unjustified by an observer
However, a stereotype can occur whether it is justified or not
Hamilton and Trolier: a cognitive structure that contains the perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs, and
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expectations about a human group
The terms knowledge” and “expectations makes the definition too broad and inconsistent with
traditional definitions
Sounds more like the definition of a schema rather than a stereotype
Schemas: broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus, our expectations
for the motives or behavior of the stimulus and our feelings toward the stimulus
Ashmore and Del Boca: a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people
Cultural and Individual Stereotypes
Cultural stereotype: shared or community-wide patterns of beliefs
Adjective rating scales are used for assessment
Individual stereotype: describes the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a
group
Ones cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as ones individual stereotype about
the group
Assessing a persons knowledge about the stereotypes of the group in their culture does not
provide us with information on whether the individual believes the stereotype
Contemporary researchers are interested n assessing individual stereotypes to predict future
behavior and attitudes toward a group
Experiments have shown that individual stereotypes are related to thoughts, feelings, and behavior
toward a group
Is a Stereotype an Attitude?
Stereotype is not an attitude
Attitudes have three components: behavioral, affective, and a cognitive component
Some believe stereotypes are intergroup attitudes reflecting the three components, while others
believe stereotypes only represent the cognitive component
Affect correspond to prejudice, and behavior corresponds to discrimination
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Discrimination: any negative behavior directed toward an individual based on their membership in
a group
Intergroup attitude: composed of ones thoughts or beliefs about, feelings toward, and behavior
toward a particular group
Positive versus Negative Stereotypes
Affective component includes positive and negative stereotype
Researchers do not look at stereotypes as being bad or good, instead they are generalizations
about a group
Positive stereotypes: beliefs that attribute desirable or positive characteristics to a group
DEFINING PREJUDICE
Prejudice as Negative Affect
Early theorists defined prejudice in terms of its affective basis
Classical perspective: a strong negative feeling about someone based on a generalization one has
bout that persons group
However, most researchers discarded the prejudice-as-emotion definition and favored more
complex definitions of prejudice
Prejudice as an Attitude
With the rise of social cognition, researchers began looking at prejudice as an evaluation of a
stimulus
Just like an attitude, prejudice has cognitive, affective, and behavioral components
Prejudice can also refer to positive prejudice in favor of ones in-group
Prejudice can be based on affective, cognitive, or behavioral sources and can result in cognitive,
behavioral, or affective expressions of prejudice
The best predictor of negative out-group prejudice is not negative feelings about the out-group,
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