Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYC18H3 (200)
Chapter 1

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Stanley Schachter, Emotional And Behavioral Disorders, Erving Goffman

Course Code
G Cupchik

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PSYC18 Chapter 1 – Approaches to Understanding Emotions
- The West’s most prominent early theorists of emotions, the Epicureans and Stoics,
thought that emotions are irrational and damaging
Nineteenth-century founders
- Charles Darwin – The Evolutionary Approach
oStudied emotions of humans and compared them to animals (The Expression
of the Emotions in Man and Animals 1872)
oRealized importance of cross-cultural study, first to use questionnaires
oAsked 2 broad questions
How are emotions expressed in humans and other animals? (blushing,
body contact, clenching fists, etc.) Pg. 6
Where do our emotions come from?
Concluded that emotional expressions derive largely from habits
that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful
Emotional expressions were like vestigial parts of our bodies
(Appendix must have been used for something but it is no longer
needed. Snarling was a form of using teeth to attack but it is also
no longer needed.)
- William James – The Bodily Approach
oThe Principles of Psychology (1890)
Thought that emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we
react to the “fact” (e.g. meeting a bear in the woods)
The core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses
Emotions give colour and warmth to experience
- Sigmund Freud – The Psychoanalytic Approach
oProposed that certain events, usually of a sexual kind, can be so damaging
that they leave psychological scars that can affect the rest of our lives
oE.g. Katharina and her uncle
Philosophical and literary approaches
- Aristotle – The Conceptual Approach (384 to 322BCE)
oEmotions are connected with action, we are responsible for our emotions
because we are responsible for our beliefs and valuations of the world
oIn his book: Rhetoric How do we persuade others?
1. A hearer is more likely to believe a good person than a bad one
2. People are persuaded when what is said stirs their emotions
3. People are persuaded by arguments that seem truthful
oSolomon (2004) – Emotions are judgments and to understand how this occurs
we can say they are subjective engagements in the world
oIn his book: Poetics About narrative writing, mainly about tragedy
Drama is about universal human action
Effects of tragic drama
People are moved emotionally (even if they are good, they are being tortured) -->
Moved to feel sympathy or pity for the character
Katharsis of our emotions (mistranslated as purgation or purification) but Martha
Nussbaum (1986) argues: Clarification
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