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Chapter 13

PSYC18H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Prefrontal Cortex, Coronary Artery Disease, Memory T Cell


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
G Cupchik
Chapter
13

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Chapter 13 – Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood
Psychiatric disorders: symptoms and prevalence
- Depression, sometimes called affective disorder, is intense sadness: a despair that can be
painfully persecuting and drains all meaning from life. Most frequently diagnosed in relation
to criteria in the American Psychiatric Association’s (2000) DSM-IV-TR
- Anxiety disorders: come in several forms, all of which involve overwhelming fears together
with more protracted moods of disabling anxiety
- Psychiatric epidemiology
oPsychiatric epidemiology: the statistical study of how frequently disorders occur
oJust like in physical health, in psychiatry, the discovery of drugs for disorders has
been important, but more important will be prevention
oIt was slow to take place because it was difficult to agree on criteria for diagnosis of
disorders and reliable psychological assessments had not been developed
oSome striking findings: Robins and Regier (1991) – depression and anxiety states
were nearly twice as common in women as in men
oDepression is recognized by WHO as single most important chronic condition in the
middle years of life
oPrevalences: percentage of people suffering from a diagnosed disorder over a specific
time
oMen have a higher prevalence for disorder of alcohol or drug abuse or dependence as
well as antisocial personality disorder
oGender differences are large in prevalence of disorders, which continue trends seen in
childhood
oThere are differences in prevalence as a function of income: people who had few
material resources more frequently had a disorder
oCultural factors play an important part in emotional disorders
oTsai and Chentsova-Dutton (2002) found that the prevalence of depression in
Western countries is far higher in Eastern countries such as Taiwan and Korea
oWHO (1983) studied depression in Switzerland, Canada, Japan and Iran covering a
core cluster of symptoms: sadness, joylessness, anxiety and lack of energy. Other
symptoms varied in frequency: 57% of patients in Iran reported bodily symptoms
compared to 27% in Canada. Other symptoms such as poor appetite and feelings of
worthless or guilt were not common to all countries
oEvidence is all correlational
- Different kinds of depression and anxiety

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Chapter 13 – Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood
oMost usual form of depression is the depressive episode (at least two weeks of either
depressed mood or lack of pleasure in daily activities + 4 or more symptoms (Minor
would be 2 – 4 symptoms)
oDistinction between major depressive episodes and bi-polar disorder (manic
depressive disorder) where depression is preceded or followed by at least one period
of mania
oMania is disorder of happiness, exhilaration and pride. Self-esteem is inflated and
sometimes become grandiose. (Hypomania is milder form). Usually after mania, a
plunge into depression
oAnxiety disorders take several forms: unexpected panic attacks with sudden terror or
dread with bodily symptoms such as racing heart, dizziness, shortness of breath.
People have no idea why it occurs. Anxiety disorders include also phobias (irresistible
urges to avoid certain places, things, or activities)
oOne of the most disabling of such disorders is agoraphobia: fear and avoidance of
being away from home. Some agoraphobics fear mainly being in places which they
cannot leave without embarrassment. Their area of safety becomes smaller and
smaller, often lose all social confidence and isolate themselves. Can be treated but
tend to remain anxious people.
oOther phobias are mainly troubling rather than disabling (spider, flying, etc.)
oA phobia of social interaction (social phobia) can be severely disabling
oSecond group of anxiety disorders is of obsessions and compulsions.
Obsessions are intrusive anxious thoughts such as those of being
contaminated by germs. Thoughts occur repeatedly and the person cannot
stop them even if they know it is irrational. It is possible that the disorder is a
defect in emotional knowledge that a security-motivated action has been
completed.
oAnxiety disorders include post-traumatic stress disorder which involves intense
anxiety, disturbed sleep, flashbacks in which traumatic event is remembered and
repeated re-experienced, as well as avoiding the memory of it. Traumas such as war,
natural/industrial disasters, criminal assaults (rape) can invoke this disorder.
oTrauma: anything that radically violates one’s basic assumptions, conscious or
unconscious about the world, overturned by violence.
oBrewin et al. conclude that the chaotic nature of post-traumatic flashbacks and
intense phobic anxiety can be explained in terms of two kinds of memory systems:
One that is verbal and subject to the making of meaningful sense of experience
Automatically triggered by aspects of situations, external or internal
oHistorical Landmark: Kraepelin’s textbook of psychiatry

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Chapter 13 – Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood
Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with psychological illnesses
Two classifications that attracted attention: manic-depressive psychosis and
dementia praecox (which came to be called schizophrenia)
In both types of psychoses: patient is deluded
Stress and diathesis in the causation of disorders
- Stress-diathesis hypothesis: that a disorder is most typically caused by a stress an adversity
in the immediate environment, in the presence of one or more predisposing factors, called
diatheses (e.g. death of loved one)
- Many emotional disorders would not happen if a stress did not occur
- Stresses: Life events and difficulties
oGeorge Brown and Tirril Harris: found that 89% of women with an onset of depression
had a severe life event or difficulty shortly before their breakdown. Developed new
method that gave stronger predictions than previously: included Life Events and
Difficulties Schedule checklist.
oMrs Trent’s story about her husband losing her job and her feeling stressed
oShrout (1989) found that clinic patients suffering from depression were 3x more likely
than people in a non-depressed community sample to have suffered a negative and
uncontrollable event
oAn event that can cause depression is most typically a loss of a role that is highly
valued (becoming depressed when a social loss or social disruption occurred)
oWhat kind of events cause depressive and anxiety breakdowns? Events that cause
strong negative emotions
Loss (deaths of loved ones), humiliation (infidelity, delinquency of child),
entrapment (when a person is trapped with no way out), danger (likelihood of
future loss)
oEpisodes of anxiety can also be caused by negative events
oAre anxiety and depression caused by the same kinds of events? Finlay-Jones
conducted study using Brown and Harris’ method, interviewing women
Anxiety disorders were most often precipitated by danger events
Depressive disorders were most often precipitated by events that were losses
- Relation between emotions and emotional disorders
oDifference between short-term negative emotions and depression/anxiety
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