Emotion development is social development.
Emotional expressions, then, are outward, visible signs of inner programs.
As development proceeds, specific emotions are expressed in forms recognizable to others.
The idea of discrete emotions derive from Tomkins's(1962) proposal that each emotion comes as an innate package with
Izard'sMAX, with its later modification AFFEX.
Oster'sBaby-FACS, an adaptation for infants of the original adult FACS by Ekman and Friesen.
Two schemes to analyzing babies' facial expressions"
Social smiles also emerge after the first month or two.
2 months -happiness expression can be distinguished in babies faces.
3 months -babies smile in response to pleasurable social encounters -same kinds of events that makes adults and
Demonstrated when infants could pull string to turn music on.
Mastery of a skill makes infants smile.
Infants also smile to make adults interested and happy, even before they can direct expressions at specific people.
Thus those using Izard's MAX system have seen expressions of anger, sadness, and pain-distress in 3 month
Other researchers have argued that babies' negative expressions show only undifferentiated distress.
When infants pulled string and no music, they showed more anger and fussiness.
A more exacting criterion is that discrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is
made in the context of an appropriate elicitor.
Loss of the stimulation (extinction).
Reduction in contingent stimulation (partial reinforcement).
Loss of stimulus control (noncontingency).
Sullivan and Lewis studied three kinds of frustration:
For all these conditions 4 to 5 month old babies increased their arm movements and showed anger
expressions, but not sadness, as coded by MAX.
With negative emotions, some researchers accept that if a facial expression meets coding criteria then a specific
The predicted expression should occur more often than any non-predicted expression in response to the
The predicted expression must be displayed more often in its appropriating eliciting circumstances than in
non-predicted eliciting circumstances
For discrete emotions to exist two criteria were to be met:
Happiness met the criteria well.
Stimuli eliciting fear provoked wide range of emotions, and significantly more non-predicted than fear.
It was elicited as often by elicitors hypothesized to elicit fear and sadness; predicted expressions were seen
more frequently in non-predicted ones.
No prototypical surprise reactions in children between 5 and 14 months old.
Surprise was also not good.
Other expressions occur but it is less clear that they always occur in specific eliciting conditions.
There are many circumstances where the elicitor does not seem compatible with infant's emotional
Camraselaborated that most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, anger,
or blends of discrete emotions.
According to AFFEX, the only difference between codings of expressions of distress-pain and
anger is that for anger the eyes are open.
During negative emotions, infants contract their orbicularis oculi muscles and close their eyes.
High intensity -distress pain.
Low or waning intensity -sadness.
In young infants negative expressions certain occur, but at different intensities (AFFEX):
Some believed that infants' negative emotions are just undifferentiated stress with varying levels of
In babies less than a year old, happy smiling occurs in response to playful games; while anger is in response to
Expressions of emotions other than disgust is hard to distinguish in the first few days of life.
Chapter 8. Development of Emotions in Childhood