Magical transformation is when emotions influence our reasoning.
Without a functioning orbitofrontal cortex and the information that an array of social emotions provide, people
lack judgment and become no longer rational.
First it has to do with whether the emotions are based on substantive beliefs.
Second concerns whether emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world.
Third is do emotions guide cognitive processes or do they disrupt them?
What is the meaning of rationality?
Emotions as prioritizers of thoughts, goals, and actions.
Emotions are a solution to a general problem: they set priorities among the many different goals that impinge
In cognitive science era, emotions guide action in a world that is always imperfectly known, and can never be fully
Such an emotion-related signal can have many sources, both inside body and outside.
It is a quick, automatic, "guess" about the kind of thing to do next.
It is organizational because it rather simply sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or
readiness, along with an urge to act in line with this readiness, specific to the particular basic
One kind is a signal that occurs automatically and derives from primary appraisal.
It is informational as it enables us to make mental models of the events and their possible causes and
Second kind of signal derives from secondary appraisal.
Oatley and Johnson-Laird proposed that emotions involve two different kinds of signaling in the nervous system.
Three perspectives on the effects of emotions on cognitive functioning.
When you experience an emotion, all of the associations of that emotion become more accessible and
available for use in different judgments.
According to GordonBower, moods and emotions are associative networks in the mind. In memory, there are
pathways devoted to each emotion, in which past experiences are all interconnected in a semantic network.
However, mood-dependent effects occur in memory but not in terms of a mechanism that affects all
processes of perception and memory in the same way, as Bowerproposed.
Effects depend on the tasks that participants perform, the moods induced, and who the participants are.
It states that emotions infuse into a cognitive task, and influence memory and judgment depending
on the extent to which the task depends on complex and constructive processing, or on matters that
The Affect Infusion Modelby Forgasis a modification to Bower'sproposal.
According to Bower'semotional congruence account, we better able to learn material that is congruent with our
current emotion, because that material is more extensively integrated into active memory structures, and more
easily retrieved at the time of recall.
This approach assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make judgments.
First is that emotions provide us with a rapid signal triggered by something in our environment.
Second is that many of the judgments we make are often too complex to review all the relevant
This account rests on two assumptions.
Emotions are heuristics, guesses that work better than chance a lot of the time, short cuts to making
judgments or taking action.
In one experiment, participants who were called on a sunny day reported greater life satisfaction than those
called on a gloomy day. When asked about the weather, there is no difference in life satisfaction.
Second approach to effects of emotion upon cognition is the perspective of feelings as information.
Different emotions promote different processing styles.
However, if people feel sad they are less likely to rely on stereotypes than if they feel angry.
A general conclusion is that positive mood facilitates use of already existing knowledge structures, such as
heuristics and stereotypes, whereas negative moods, in particular sadness, facilitate more analytical
thought and careful attention to situational details.
A third perspective on the effects of emotion and moods on cognition is processing style.
Chapter 10. Emotions and Cognition