Principal emotional component is the diminution of pleasurable goal achievement.
Depression (or affective disorder) is intense sadness; a despair that can painfully persecute and drain all meaning from
Anxiety involves overwhelming fears together with more protracted moods of disabling anxiety, often avoidance of what
is most feared, and often a loss of personal confidence.
In an emotional disorder, aspects of one's emotions tend to become more difficult to understand than normal.
Psychiatric epidemiology was slow to take its place alongside medical epidemiology mainly because it was at first difficult
to agree on the criteria for diagnosis of the disorders, and reliable psychological assessments have not been developed.
Women are much more likely than men to suffer from depression and anxiety.
Men has a higher prevalence of antisocial personality disorder than women.
Although there are gender differences in normal emotions, they are small in comparison to those in the prevalence of
Prevalence of depression in Western countries is far higher than in Eastern countries such as Taiwan or Korea.
However, being poor, begin female, and having little education were associated with depression across different
Other symptoms such as loss of appetite, feelings of worthlessness or guilt were not common to all
Insomnia, loss of energy, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of suicide occurred in both Western and Asian
Cultural factors are important in emotional disorders.
The evidence for differences in prevalence are correlational.
Must have at least two weeks of either depressed mood or lack of pleasure in daily activities, plus four or more
Minor depression can be classified as having two to four symptoms in all.
Most usual form of depression is the depressive episode, or major depressive disorder.
Mania is the disorder of happiness, exhilaration, and pride.
Bi-polar disorder or manic-depressive disorder is when depression is preceded or followed by at least one period of
They include unexpected panic attacks with sudden terror or dread; people have no idea why it occurs.
This can be very disabling.
Agoraphobia is the fear and avoidance of being away from home.
Other phobias such as fear of spiders or flying is troublesome rather than disabling.
Phobias are almost irresistible urges to avoid certain places, things, or activities.
Performing an action will temporarily diminish anxiety, but only temporarily.
Obsessions and compulsions are intrusive anxious thoughts that lead the person to repeated actions or rituals .
A trauma is anything that radically violates one's basic assumptions, conscious or unconscious about the
world, especially when the assumptions are overtuned by a violent event.
Post-traumatic stress disorder involves intense anxiety, disturbed sleep, flashbacks in which a traumatic event is
remembered and repeatedly re-experienced, together with avoiding anything that might remind one of it.
Anxiety disorders take several forms.
Stress and diathesis in the causation of disorders.
Life event or difficulty: life event is an external event that changes a person's life. Severely negative life events,
for instance bereavements, are stressors. A difficulty is a long-lasting stressor, for instance living in poverty.
Stress-diathesis hypothesisis that a disorder is most typically caused by a stress, an adversity in the immediate
environment, in the presence of one or more predisposing factors, called diatheses, which are inherent in a person.
People become depressed when extreme adversities occur.
The Life Events and Difficulties Schedule was a semi-structured interview by Brown and Harris, a method that gave
stronger predictions than had previously been possible for who would get depressed.
So depression is not necessarily irrational.
An event that can cause depression is most typically a loss of a role that is highly valued.
Humiliation, entrapment, and danger.
Other events that have been found to produce emotional disorders:
Clinic patients suffering from depression were three times more likely than people in a non-depressed community
sample to have suffered a negative and uncontrollable event.
Severe negative events were associated with a threefold increase in anxiety disorder in both men and women.
Lesser events were associated with an eightfold increase of generalized anxiety disorder in men but not women.
Episodes of anxiety can also be caused by negative events.
Chapter 13. Emotions and Mental Health in Adulthood