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Chapter 1-8

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Psychology notes Psychology: the evolution of science 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM Psychology is the study of mind and behavior  Mind: private inner experience  Behavior: observable action of human and nonhuman animal FMRI lets the brain see which part is active Antonio damasio saw Elliot’s problem after a tumour on brain was removed. Elliot made bad decision, couldn’t prioritize tasks, and didn’t feel anxiety 3 groups of psychology 1) Structuarlists: analyze mind by breaking down basic components 2) Functionalist: focus on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to environment 3) Psychoanalysis 4) Behaviourism 5) Cognitive psychology nativism:knowledge are inborn. Plato’s empiricisism: all knowledge Is acquired through experience(blank slate written with experience) Rene Descarte argued that mind(soule/immaterial) and body(material) are separate  Dualism: how mental activity can coordinate with physical behavior.  Pineal gland influence mind Thomas Hobbes: mind is what the brain does. Franze Joseph Gall thought brain and mind linked  Phrenology :specific mental abilities are located in specific region of brain. (proven wrong) Paul Broca  Broca’s area damages=unable to speak but can understand. Structuralism: Applying methods from physiology to psychology.  Physiology: study of biological proceses, especially human body.  Helmholtz shows that reaction time to body wasn’t autonomic  Wundt believed in consciousness; a person’s subjective experience of world and mind. He created structuralism: analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. *(breaking down sensation/feelings) o Introspection: subjective observation of one’s own experience. James created functionalism:the study of purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment. He applied darwin’s theory of natural selection. Hall believed that children stages in evolutionary history of our ancestors. Jean martin charcot + pierre Janet found out hysteria: temporary loss of cognitive/motor functions result of emotion  Hysteria curred by hypnosis Freud develop psychoanalytic theory: approach that emphasize importance of unconscious mental process in shaping feelings/thoughts/behavior.  Psychoanalysis:bringing unconscious into conscious Hujanistic psychology: approach to understanding positive human nature. Behaviourism:psychologists restrict observable behavior.  Watson  What people DO, not what people experience(subjective structuralismfunctional)  Pavlovs dog, stimulus: sound .response: saliva,  Skinner box: recinforcement-consequence of behavior that will determine if behavior occurs again. Hungry rat pressed the lever and kept pressing it until it was full. Cognitive psychology: study of mental process, perception, thought, memory.  Illusion:errors of perception, memory, judgment in which subjective differs from objective. (e.g I see 2 different lines)  Gestalt psychology: emphasize that whole is better than the sum of parts.  Ebbinghauss believed in memories of stories to recall.  Bartlett believed that subjects believed in what SHOULD happen, not what did happen.  Lewin created topology: person’s subjective experience.  Piaget studied children development.  Chromsky argues that language required mental rules, not reinforcement. Cognitive Neuroscience; field that understand link between cognitive and brain process.  Karl Lashley trained rats to run mazes while removed brain parts.  Physiological psychology=behavioural neuroscience=links psychological processes to nervous system/body process. Evolutionary psychology: explains mind and behaaviour in terms of adaptive value of abilities in nautral selection.  Tall men have more offspring. Social Psychology: study of causes/consequences of interpersonal behavior.  Norman Triplett noticed that children reeled their fishing poles faster with others than alone.  Lewin ofund field theory that viewed social behavior as internal force(personality) and external (culture/social pressure). Cultural Psychology: study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their member  Wundt, bateson, mead observed rituals/religious ceremeonies.  Absolutism: culture makes no difference to psychology  Some believe culture affect/unaffects others. (culture affects person’s earliest memory while facial attraction not affect) Methods in Psychology. 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM Empiricism: beliefe that knowledge acquired through observation.  Dogmatism: people to understand illness, develop human theories(this was wrong)  Scientiifc method: set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas/evidence.  Theory: hypothetical explanation of a antaural phenomenon.  Rule of parsimony: start with simplest theory then make it cmomplicated.  Hypothesis: falsifiable prediction made by a theory.  Empirical method: set of rules for observation.  3 things make people hard to study: complexity(brain complex), variablility(2 ppl can’t be the same), reactivity(I talk to prof/friends differ). Method of observation: determines what people do  Measurement: define(what we measure) and detect(a way to find it)  Operational definition: description of a property in concrete terms.  Measure: device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition reers  EMG: electromyography: device that measures muscle contractions under surface of skin.  Good measures have: validity(measurement are related) happiness=friends, reliability(tendency for measure to produce the same each time) facial muscle have contractions, power(ability to detec concrete conditions specified in operantional definition)different device=differnet numbers.  Demand characteristic: observational setting that cause people to behave as they shoud.  Naturalistic observation: technique for gathering information by unobtrusively observing people in natural environemtn. (does not know being observed)  Double blind: both observer/being observed are hidden from purpose. Description  Frequency distribution: measurements arranged by numbers of time each measurement was made  Normal distribution: frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the middle.  Mode: value of most frequency observed measurement.  Mean: average measurement.  Median: middle of measurement.  2 kinds of descriptiove statistic: central tendency(mean,mode,median) AND variability(SD.range) o in normal distribution, mean=mode=median all same.  Range; largest value-smallest value  Standard deviation: average difference between frequency distrubtion and mean. Method of Explanation: determine why people do what they do.  Variable: property whose value can vary across individuals  Correlation: 2 variables where variations are synchronized.  3 step: measure variable, measure series(measure variable AGAIN), make a pattern(correlation)  Natural correlation: correlation abserved in world around us (tv cause aggressiveness)  Third variable correlation: 2 variable correlected because each is causally related to 3 rdvariable. (tv cause aggressiveness because no adult supervision)  Matched samples: technique where 2 groups are identital to 3 rd group.  Match pair: technique where participant have same 3 rd variable(both children group has same supervision, but different tv exposure)  Third variable problem: there can be more third variable correlation  Experiment: technique for establishing casual relationship between variables. o 2 features of experiment o 1) manipulation :creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine casual power  dependent/independent /control group. o 2) random assignment: procedure that uses random event to assign people to experiment or control group. Drawing conclusions  Internal validity: experiment shows casual relationship between variables  External validity: experiment where variables have been defined normal/realistic. (external validity not too good)  Population: collection of participants maybe measured  Sample: partial collection of people drawn from population  Case method: gathering knowledge by studying one person.  Random sampling: technique for choosing participants equally. Ethics of science  Informed consent: written agree ment to participate in study  Freedom from coercion: willing to participate(not for money)  Debriefing: verbal description of purpose of study. Neuroscience and Behaviour. 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM Neurons: The Origin of Behaviour Neurons Specialize by location  Purkinje cells: inteneruons that carry from cerebellum to brain/spinal cord  Pyramidal cells: cerebral cortex.  Bipolar cells: sensory neuron found in eye have single dentrite/axon. Salutatory conduction: electric current passes down node to node. Types of neurotransmitters  ACH: neurotransmitter involved in voluntary motor control. (Alzheimers disease)  Dopamine: neurotransmitter that regulate motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, emotional arousal. (high levels lead to schizophrenia)(low levels lead to Parkinson disease).  Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transimission throughout brain. (high glutamate=seizure.) GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. (too little GABA/toomuch glutamate=overactive brain)  Norepinephrin: neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal. Seritonin is involved with sleep,eating,aggressive behavior. Low level or norepinephrine/serotonin=mood disorder  Endorphins: act within pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain. Release endorphin to soothe pain. How drugs mimic neurotransmitter  Agonists: drugs that increase action of neurotrasnsmitter  Antagonist: drugs that block neurotransmitter.  Methamphetamine affects dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine.  Amphetamine stimulates norepinephrine and dopamine. (to elevate euphoria/awakeness)  Prozac: depression to blocks the reuptake of serotonin. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. By blocking serotonin, increase serotonin in synapses that elevate mood.  Antagonist propranolol (betablockers) that block norepinephrine. (decrase heart rates) The Nervous system: neurons that convey electrochemical information throughout the body  CNS: nervous system of brain/ spinal cord o Spinal reflex: nervous system for muscle contraction. o Quadriplegia: spinal injury cause loss of sensation/ motor control of limb.  PNS: nervous system that connects CNS to body organ/muscle. o Somatic: nerve that convey voluntary information in CNS o Autonomic: nerve that carry involuntary command to control blood vessel,body organ, bland  Sympathetic: nerves for fight/flight  Parasympathetic: nerves for rest/digest Structure of the Brain  Low level brain= low activity.  High low = forebrainmidbrainhindbrain.  Hind brain: coordinate information with spinal cord o 3 parts o 1) medulla: extension of spinal cord into skull for heart rate, respiration, circulation  inside medulla is reticular formation: regulate sleep/wakefulnessarousal. o 2) Cerebellum: control motor skill o 3) pons: relays information from cerebellum to rest of brain pons=bridge.  mid brain: 2 parts o 1) tectum: orients organism in environment (when you hear a click , you turn around) o 2) tegmentum: movement and arousal. o You can survive if you have MIDBRAIN AND HINDBRAIN.  Forebrain: 2 part. Cognitive, emotional sensory. o 1) cerebral cortex: outermost layer visible to naked eye and divided to 2 hemisphere  gyri: smooth surface  culci: indents of brain.  Contralateral control: left brain control right. Right brain control left.  Brain 2 hemisphere 4 lobes  1) occipital lobe: cerebral cortex for visual.  2) Parietal lob: cerebral cortex for touch. Contains somatosensory cortex: (some parts of body more sensitive0  3) Temporal lobe:cerebral cortex for hearing/language.  4) Frontal lobe: cerebral cortex for movmenet, thinking, planning,memory, judgement.  Association are: cerebral cortex area composed of neurons to register sense into cortex. (help stich together information)  Brain plasticity: can be molded/changed. o 2) Subcortical cstructure: under cerebral cortex near center of brain.  Thalamus: relays/filters information from sense and transmit to cerebral cortex.  Detect all major sense except smell.  Hypothalamus: below thalamus. Regulates temperature, hunge,r thirst, sexual behavior. (hissing cate)  Pituitary gland: master gland of hormone producing system. (baby drinking breast)  Limbic system: hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus.  Hippocampus: creating new memory and stored in cerebral cortex. (damage hippocampus=can remember how to drive/talk but can’t remember conversation they had)  Amygdala: emotional memories. (scary dog=stimulus)  Basal ganglia: intentional movement  Receive cerebral cortex and sends to motor nerves.  Striatum: part of basal ganglia. o Corpus callosum connects 2 hemisphere of cerebral cortex.. The development of evolution of Nervous system.  Hind brain forms first then midbrain then forebrain.  Ontogeny: how brain develops in individual  Phylogeny: how brain develops in species  First nervous system found in worms where spinal cord connected to brain by commissure. Genes do not predict individual characteristic. Investigating the brain  Broca: injured broca can’t speak but can understand  Wernicke: injured Wernicke: can’t understand but can speak  Phinease Gage: after healing his pipe through face, his injured frontal lobe showed that frontal lobe involved in emotion regulation, planning, decision making.  Split brain procedure: make one hemisphere stay at one hemisphere(e.g if seizure moves from one side to other side=bad. If seizure stays in one side, relieved) o Sperry pointed out that corpus callosum show that both brain work together to process information. o Chimeric face: use half face picture for identification.  eGG: eclectroencephalograph: device used to record electrical activity in brain. o Featured detectors: neurons selectively respond to certain aspect of a visual image. (respond to 45 angle compare to horizontal line) Brain imaging  Neuroimaging techniques  Structural brain imaging: basic structure of brain to see abnormalities o CT scan: density of the brain. Locate tumor. Xray o Magnetic resonance imaging: soft tissue. Clearer. o Ct/MRI does not show brain function  Functional brain imaging: information of cognitive/motor task o Positron emission tomography: PET: harmless radioactive substance injected into blood stream. It shows activation of which part of brain (e.g when you speak, Broca/s area shows) o Functional magnetic resonance imaging: FMRI: detects twisting of hemoglobin molecutels in blood.  Unlike PET, FMRI has no radioactive substance. FMIRI detect faster. FRMI better. Sensation and Perception 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM Psychophysics: methods to measure strength of a stimulus/observer’s sensitivity to the stimulus  Operationalize: finding reliable ways to measure  Perception: measure psychological experience. o Gustav Fechner developed psychophysics. Researcher ask people to make judgement(if they saw light or not) Measuring threshold  Absolute threshold: minimal intensity needed to detect stimulus. (a boundary). o Sensory threshold: vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste. (did you see it or not) o Maybe detece 50% or not detect 50%  Human excel in detecting changes in stimulation.  Just noticeable difference: the minimal change in a stimulus that can detect change. o JND small : when response is dim/bright o JND big : when response is bright  Weber’s law: the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity. The measured size of difference is irrelevant. The proportion between stimuli is important (20.1 kg vs 22 kg. you would notice 22 kg.) Signal detection theory: observation that the response to a stimulus depends on both a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on person’s response.  Noise=competition=all other stimuli coming from internal/external environment.  If sensory evidence exceed criteria: observer says yes I detect stimulus  If sensory evidence short of criteria, observer say no I did not detect stimulus  Hit: light present, observer says yes  Miss: light present, observer say no.  False alarm: light not present, observer say yes  Correct rejection: light not present, observer say no.  Perceptual sensitivity: how effectively the perceptual system represents sensory event ( not from observer strategy) o Liberal criteria: check every cancer case (and miss on true cancer/falsealarm: cancer not present, but say it is) o Conservative criteria; cut down false alarm but miss cancer Sensory adaptation: sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions.  Our percetptual system emphasizes on changes. Vision1: how eyes/brain convert light waves to neural signals  Visual acuity: ability to see fine detail  3 properties of light waves: length (color), amplitude (intensity/brightness), purity(distinct wavelength/frequency/saturation) o so light is: length, ampliutude purity o so humans see: color, brightness, saturation.  Corneapupilirisretina o Retina: light sensitive tissue lining back of eyeball o Accommodation: eye maintain clear image on retina. o Myopia: nearsightedness. Image focus front of retina. o Hyperopia: farsightedness. Image focus back of retina.  Photoreceptor cells in retina: cones/ rods  Cones: photoreceptors that detect color in daylight  Rod: photoreceptors that detect dim light in night (more sensitive)  Fovea: area of retina where vision clearest, but no rod. (this decrease sharp vision. o With no rod regions, you can detect other stars with a lot of rod region. o With cones, you can detect why objects to the side, aren’t clear.  Neural signalrod/conebiipolar cellretinal ganglion cellsoptic nerve brain. o Optic nerve: blind spot: no rod/cone. Location in visual field that produce no sensation in retina.  Receptive field: region of sensory surface that, when stimulated, cause change in firing rate of neuron. o On center cell: central excitatory zone surround by inhibitory o Off-center cell: central inhibitory zone surround by excitatory  Additive color mixing: mixing our 3 colors: red,greenblue.  Subtractive color mixing: deducting color  Trichromatic color representation: 3 cones to provide code for each color. o Color deficienty: genetic disorder of color blind.  Color afterimage:staring at one color too long fatigue the cones.  Color opponent system: pairs of visual neurons working in opposite. (you look at green/red. Red=excite. Green-inhibit. So once you stare at green, cones weaken. Then quickly look at red, cones strengthen and red is emphasized) The visual brain Retina optic nervelateral geniculate nucleus in thalamus.--> Area V1(part of occipital lobe that contains primary visual cortex) Neural system of perceiving shape  V1 area is used for encoding edge orientation. 2 visual streams(visual ways) for occipital cortex to visual area to brain.  Ventral streamoccipital lobetemporal lobe o Damage temporal lobe=cannot recognize face.  Dorsaloccipital lobe parietal lobebrain(location/motion) o Dorsal used for aiming, tracking, reaching.  Visual form agnosia: inability to recognize objects by sight. (damage occipital)  Optic ataxia:dorsal damage and cannot guide reaching motion. But can recognize face. Vision 2: Recognizing what we perceive. Binding problem: how features are linked together so we see unify object. Illusory conjunction: perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined.  Treisman and Schmidt say illusory conjuction occur because of feature integration theory: idea that focused attention is not required to detect individual features but required to bind features together. (you have to see the things together, not individually)  Illusory conjunctions occur when it is difficult for participants to pay attention to features . Role of parietal lobe  Damaged parietal lobe=illusory conujunctions  When TMS added to turn off parietal lobe, illusory conjunction increased. When TMS added, occipital lobe not affected. Synesthesia: stimulating one part of the sense/body to stimulate another sense/body.  Normal binding of colors=response to feature of external stimulus.  In synesthesia, color is not external stimulus.  In fmri study, synethesthic activate parietal lobe. TMS interfere with synethestic . ex) we name color green faster than orange.but when ignore numbers, it is difficult Recognizing objects by sight.  Modular view: specialized brain areas/modules to detect faces/houses/body parts in order to recognize. In fmri studies, temporal lobe responds to face. We have neurons specialized for face/building/detections.  Distributed representation: (different from modular): patterns of activity that identifies objects.  Perceptual constancy: perceptual principle staing that aspects of sensory signal change, but perception stays the same o People with seizure/epilepsy still had temporal lobe neurons recognize words o Perception sensitive to change, but perceptual constancy allow us to notice differences in the first place ( this is why you can still recognize friend after haircut)  Principles of perceptual organization o Perceptual grouping rules: govern how features/regions of things fit together. o 1) simplicity: Gestlat grouping rule of Pragnanz: visual system tend to select simplest interpretation o 2) closure: we fill in missing elements of visual scene o continuity: Gestalts says ‘good continuation’ where edges have the same orientation tend to be grouped together. o 3) similarity: regions that are similar in color,light,shape,texture are same object o 4)proximity: objects close together are grouped o 5)common fate; elements that move together are one single object.  Separating figure from ground o Figure(words/professor). Background(paper/classroom) o Edgar Rubin: Rubin vase=reversible figure gorund relationship where we see a vase or 2 people. In fmri, when people select to see 2 people face, temporal lobe is activated.  Theories of object recognition. o Template: mental representation that an be compared to a viewed shape in retinal image. In image based object recognition theory, object you seen before is stored in memory of template. (you have a template for different cup tilts) o Parts base object recognition theory: view objects into collection of parts. Geons: combine objects(combine letters into words. It explains categorical features, not individual features. It shows how you can recognize face, but not distinguish between face a/face b Perceiving depth and size.  Depth cues: changes are you move through space  Monoculare depth cues: aspect of a scene that yield information about depth from one eye. (distance and size) o Relative size: brain perceives distance o Familia size: we use to perceive the difference in distance and size. ( the person seems like an ant, but familiar size, you know normal people are 7 feet.) o Linear perspective: parallel lines seem to converge. o Texture gradient: when patterns become less /more uniform. o Interposition: one object blocks another object. (cannot infer distance between blocked objects) o Relative height in image: objects closer=lower visual field. (flower). Objects farther=higher visual field( mountain)  Binocular disparity: difference in retinal image of 2 eyes about depth. o Sir Charles wheatstone invent stereoscope. o Illusion: errors of perception, memory, judgement, which subjective differs from objective. o Ames room shows that brain is fooled ot think, if 2 objects are the same size, the one farther away is bigger. Perceiving motion and change.  Apparent motion: perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different location.  MT in temporal lobe specialize in visual perception of motion.  Waterfall illusion: sensory adaptation: you look at waterfall and then rock, you feel the same downfall movement of rock. When one motion detector cell fatigue, another takes over.  Phi phenomenon: shows the sense of motion illusion of flashing lights in Las vagas buildings  Common fate: Gestalt: people see series of flashing light as a whole.  Change blindness: people fail to detect change in visual details of scene. Focus attention is important for binding together features of objects. Change blindness occurs when no focus on visual. (you don’t notice that the person standing in front of you is not the same man a few seconds ago in the subway)  Inattentional blindness: failure to perceive objects not in focus of attention: students using cellphone fail to see a clown on street. Audition Pure tone: simple sound wave that increase air press then vacuum. 3 parts of sound wave: frequency, amplitude,complexity. = pitch, loudness, quality  frequency: how often the peak is. = pitch: how low/high sound is  amplitude: height of threshold=loudness: sound intensity.  Complexity: mixing frequency: timbre: listeners experience of sound quality/resonance. (flute/trumpet difference0  Frequency provide most information. The human ear.  Outer ear : collects sound waves o Pinnaauditory canaleardrum  Middle ear; transmit vibration o Ossicles(hammer,anvil,stirrup).  Inner ear; transduce into neural impulse o Cochlea(fluid filled tube that is for organ of auditory transduction) bailar membrane(undulates when vibration from ossicles reach cochlear fluid).  heair cells(specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in basilar membrane). Perceiving pitch  Inner ear thalamuscontralateral(opposite side hemisphere of cerebral cortex)  A1(portion of temporal lobe that contain primary auditory cortex).--> left analyze language. Right analyze rhythm/music.  Spatial auditory features, allow you to locate source of sound by areas at the back of auditory cortex.  Non spatial features(acoustic sound) are at the ventral part of auditory cortex.  Our ears have 2 ways to encode sound-wave frequency, (1)low frequency 2) high frequency o Place code: cochlea encodes different frequency at different location at basilar membrane  When frequency low, apec of basilar membrane move  When frequency high, base of membrane moves the most .  Place code works better in high frequency o Temporal code: cochlea encode low frequency through firing action potential entering auditory nerve  Temporal code does not work well as place code for high frequency. Because there is limited range of action potential.  Both temporal/place code work together to detect pitch. Localizing sound sources.  Loudness decreases as sound move from side to side of head. Loudness has no difference if it’s in front of head. Haptic perceptionL active exploration of environment by touching objects with our hands.  4 receptors on skin to sense pressure, texture, pattern, vibration.  3 important principle  1)contralateral organization.: left half body =right brain. Right half body=left brain.  2) regions devoted for more sensitivity. Lip/fingers are good for discriminating detail. Lower back cannot.  3) parietal lobe involved pain  congenital insensitivity to pain: inherited disorder that impair pain perception(can’t detect pain. Kids bite tongue, scratch until bleed)  A-delta fibers: transmite initial sharp pain (sudden injury)  C-fiber: transmit long dull pain after initial injury.  If you step on something sharp, first A-fibers would die down then C-fiber activate  Referred pain: feeling of pain when sensory information from internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cell in the spinal cord. (e.g during heart attack, feel pain on left arm rather than chest) (e.g you burn finger, it may be your muscle aching, but you think it’s skin)  Gate control theory: theory of pain perception based on idea that signals arriving from pain receptor in body can be stop (gated by interneurons in spinal cord through feedback from 2 directions).  Periaqueductal gray: neural feed back from midbrain. (during stress, endorphins activate PaG to send inhibitory signal to spinal cord to suppress pain. PAg activated through opiate/morphine).  Bottom up control:brain process information  Top down control: descending pain from midtrain.  Vestibular system: 3 fluid filled semicircular canals and organs near cochlea in innear ear. It detect motion to maintain balance Flavor: smell + taste Smell  Olfactory receptor neurons: receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell.--> bind to odorant.--> olfactory bulb: brain structure located above nasal cavity beneath frontal lobes).--> glomerulus  Smell is determine by bottom-up influence(odorant bind to site on ORN0 and top down influence  Fmri show orbiotofrontal cortex involved: to code pleasant memory.  Pheromones: biochemical odorants emitted by other members of its species that can affect an animal’s behavior/physiology. o Positron emission tomography to study 2 odor. Tesosteron(men sweat). Estrogen(women urine). o Straight men respond to estrogen. Lesbian resond to estrogen. Straight women respond to testosterone, gay men respond to testosterone.e Taste  Papille: small bumps. In papille are taste bud(organ of taste transduction). Salt, bitter, sweet, sour, umami. In taste bud are microvilli that react with tastant molecules.  Salty: sodium  Sour: acid  Bitter/sweet: sugar.  Umami: protein/glutamate/monosodium glutamate MSG.  Taster: mild bitter. Nontaster: not bitter. Supertaster: extreme bitter  Synesthesia: perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense Sensation: stimulation of sense organ Perception: organization, interpretation of sensati
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