Psychology: the evolution of science 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM
Psychology is the study of mind and behavior
Mind: private inner experience
Behavior: observable action of human and nonhuman animal
FMRI lets the brain see which part is active
Antonio damasio saw Elliot’s problem after a tumour on brain was removed.
Elliot made bad decision, couldn’t prioritize tasks, and didn’t feel anxiety
3 groups of psychology
1) Structuarlists: analyze mind by breaking down basic components
2) Functionalist: focus on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to
5) Cognitive psychology
nativism:knowledge are inborn.
Plato’s empiricisism: all knowledge Is acquired through experience(blank
slate written with experience)
Rene Descarte argued that mind(soule/immaterial) and body(material) are
Dualism: how mental activity can coordinate with physical behavior.
Pineal gland influence mind
Thomas Hobbes: mind is what the brain does.
Franze Joseph Gall thought brain and mind linked
Phrenology :specific mental abilities are located in specific region of
brain. (proven wrong)
Broca’s area damages=unable to speak but can understand.
Structuralism: Applying methods from physiology to psychology.
Physiology: study of biological proceses, especially human body.
Helmholtz shows that reaction time to body wasn’t autonomic
Wundt believed in consciousness; a person’s subjective experience
of world and mind. He created structuralism: analysis of the basic
elements that constitute the mind. *(breaking down
sensation/feelings) o Introspection: subjective observation of one’s own
James created functionalism:the study of purpose mental processes serve in
enabling people to adapt to their environment. He applied darwin’s theory of
Hall believed that children stages in evolutionary history of our ancestors.
Jean martin charcot + pierre Janet found out hysteria: temporary loss of
cognitive/motor functions result of emotion
Hysteria curred by hypnosis
Freud develop psychoanalytic theory: approach that emphasize importance
of unconscious mental process in shaping feelings/thoughts/behavior.
Psychoanalysis:bringing unconscious into conscious
Hujanistic psychology: approach to understanding positive human nature.
Behaviourism:psychologists restrict observable behavior.
What people DO, not what people experience(subjective
Pavlovs dog, stimulus: sound .response: saliva,
Skinner box: recinforcement-consequence of behavior that will
determine if behavior occurs again. Hungry rat pressed the lever
and kept pressing it until it was full.
Cognitive psychology: study of mental process, perception, thought,
Illusion:errors of perception, memory, judgment in which subjective
differs from objective. (e.g I see 2 different lines)
Gestalt psychology: emphasize that whole is better than the sum of
Ebbinghauss believed in memories of stories to recall.
Bartlett believed that subjects believed in what SHOULD happen,
not what did happen.
Lewin created topology: person’s subjective experience.
Piaget studied children development.
Chromsky argues that language required mental rules, not
Cognitive Neuroscience; field that understand link between cognitive and
brain process. Karl Lashley trained rats to run mazes while removed brain parts.
Physiological psychology=behavioural neuroscience=links
psychological processes to nervous system/body process.
Evolutionary psychology: explains mind and behaaviour in terms of adaptive
value of abilities in nautral selection.
Tall men have more offspring.
Social Psychology: study of causes/consequences of interpersonal behavior.
Norman Triplett noticed that children reeled their fishing poles
faster with others than alone.
Lewin ofund field theory that viewed social behavior as internal
force(personality) and external (culture/social pressure).
Cultural Psychology: study of how cultures reflect and shape the
psychological processes of their member
Wundt, bateson, mead observed rituals/religious ceremeonies.
Absolutism: culture makes no difference to psychology
Some believe culture affect/unaffects others. (culture affects
person’s earliest memory while facial attraction not affect) Methods in Psychology. 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM
Empiricism: beliefe that knowledge acquired through observation.
Dogmatism: people to understand illness, develop human
theories(this was wrong)
Scientiifc method: set of principles about the appropriate
relationship between ideas/evidence.
Theory: hypothetical explanation of a antaural phenomenon.
Rule of parsimony: start with simplest theory then make it
Hypothesis: falsifiable prediction made by a theory.
Empirical method: set of rules for observation.
3 things make people hard to study: complexity(brain complex),
variablility(2 ppl can’t be the same), reactivity(I talk to prof/friends
Method of observation: determines what people do
Measurement: define(what we measure) and detect(a way to find
Operational definition: description of a property in concrete terms.
Measure: device that can detect the condition to which an
operational definition reers
EMG: electromyography: device that measures muscle contractions
under surface of skin.
Good measures have: validity(measurement are related)
happiness=friends, reliability(tendency for measure to produce the
same each time) facial muscle have contractions, power(ability to
detec concrete conditions specified in operantional
definition)different device=differnet numbers.
Demand characteristic: observational setting that cause people to
behave as they shoud.
Naturalistic observation: technique for gathering information by
unobtrusively observing people in natural environemtn. (does not
know being observed)
Double blind: both observer/being observed are hidden from
Frequency distribution: measurements arranged by numbers of
time each measurement was made Normal distribution: frequency distribution in which most
measurements are concentrated around the middle.
Mode: value of most frequency observed measurement.
Mean: average measurement.
Median: middle of measurement.
2 kinds of descriptiove statistic: central
tendency(mean,mode,median) AND variability(SD.range)
o in normal distribution, mean=mode=median all same.
Range; largest value-smallest value
Standard deviation: average difference between frequency
distrubtion and mean.
Method of Explanation: determine why people do what they do.
Variable: property whose value can vary across individuals
Correlation: 2 variables where variations are synchronized.
3 step: measure variable, measure series(measure variable
AGAIN), make a pattern(correlation)
Natural correlation: correlation abserved in world around us (tv
Third variable correlation: 2 variable correlected because each is
causally related to 3 rdvariable. (tv cause aggressiveness because
no adult supervision)
Matched samples: technique where 2 groups are identital to 3 rd
Match pair: technique where participant have same 3 rd
variable(both children group has same supervision, but different tv
Third variable problem: there can be more third variable correlation
Experiment: technique for establishing casual relationship between
o 2 features of experiment
o 1) manipulation :creation of an artificial pattern of variation in
a variable in order to determine casual power
dependent/independent /control group.
o 2) random assignment: procedure that uses random event to
assign people to experiment or control group.
Drawing conclusions Internal validity: experiment shows casual relationship between
External validity: experiment where variables have been defined
normal/realistic. (external validity not too good)
Population: collection of participants maybe measured
Sample: partial collection of people drawn from population
Case method: gathering knowledge by studying one person.
Random sampling: technique for choosing participants equally.
Ethics of science
Informed consent: written agree ment to participate in study
Freedom from coercion: willing to participate(not for money)
Debriefing: verbal description of purpose of study. Neuroscience and Behaviour. 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM
Neurons: The Origin of Behaviour
Neurons Specialize by location
Purkinje cells: inteneruons that carry from cerebellum to
Pyramidal cells: cerebral cortex.
Bipolar cells: sensory neuron found in eye have single
Salutatory conduction: electric current passes down node to node.
Types of neurotransmitters
ACH: neurotransmitter involved in voluntary motor control.
Dopamine: neurotransmitter that regulate motor behavior,
motivation, pleasure, emotional arousal. (high levels lead to
schizophrenia)(low levels lead to Parkinson disease).
Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in
information transimission throughout brain. (high
glutamate=seizure.) GABA is the primary inhibitory
neurotransmitter in the brain. (too little GABA/toomuch
Norepinephrin: neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal.
Seritonin is involved with sleep,eating,aggressive behavior. Low
level or norepinephrine/serotonin=mood disorder
Endorphins: act within pain pathways and emotion centers of the
brain. Release endorphin to soothe pain.
How drugs mimic neurotransmitter
Agonists: drugs that increase action of neurotrasnsmitter
Antagonist: drugs that block neurotransmitter.
Methamphetamine affects dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine.
Amphetamine stimulates norepinephrine and dopamine. (to elevate
Prozac: depression to blocks the reuptake of serotonin. Selective
serotonin reuptake inhibitor. By blocking serotonin, increase
serotonin in synapses that elevate mood.
Antagonist propranolol (betablockers) that block norepinephrine.
(decrase heart rates) The Nervous system: neurons that convey electrochemical information
throughout the body
CNS: nervous system of brain/ spinal cord
o Spinal reflex: nervous system for muscle contraction.
o Quadriplegia: spinal injury cause loss of sensation/ motor
control of limb.
PNS: nervous system that connects CNS to body organ/muscle.
o Somatic: nerve that convey voluntary information in CNS
o Autonomic: nerve that carry involuntary command to control
blood vessel,body organ, bland
Sympathetic: nerves for fight/flight
Parasympathetic: nerves for rest/digest
Structure of the Brain
Low level brain= low activity.
High low = forebrainmidbrainhindbrain.
Hind brain: coordinate information with spinal cord
o 3 parts
o 1) medulla: extension of spinal cord into skull for heart rate,
inside medulla is reticular formation: regulate
o 2) Cerebellum: control motor skill
o 3) pons: relays information from cerebellum to rest of brain
mid brain: 2 parts
o 1) tectum: orients organism in environment (when you hear a
click , you turn around)
o 2) tegmentum: movement and arousal.
o You can survive if you have MIDBRAIN AND HINDBRAIN.
Forebrain: 2 part. Cognitive, emotional sensory.
o 1) cerebral cortex: outermost layer visible to naked eye and
divided to 2 hemisphere
gyri: smooth surface
culci: indents of brain.
Contralateral control: left brain control right. Right brain
control left. Brain 2 hemisphere 4 lobes
1) occipital lobe: cerebral cortex for visual.
2) Parietal lob: cerebral cortex for touch. Contains
somatosensory cortex: (some parts of body more
3) Temporal lobe:cerebral cortex for hearing/language.
4) Frontal lobe: cerebral cortex for movmenet, thinking,
Association are: cerebral cortex area composed of
neurons to register sense into cortex. (help stich
Brain plasticity: can be molded/changed.
o 2) Subcortical cstructure: under cerebral cortex near center of
Thalamus: relays/filters information from sense and
transmit to cerebral cortex.
Detect all major sense except smell.
Hypothalamus: below thalamus. Regulates
temperature, hunge,r thirst, sexual behavior. (hissing
Pituitary gland: master gland of hormone producing
system. (baby drinking breast)
Limbic system: hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus.
Hippocampus: creating new memory and stored
in cerebral cortex. (damage hippocampus=can
remember how to drive/talk but can’t remember
conversation they had)
Amygdala: emotional memories. (scary
Basal ganglia: intentional movement
Receive cerebral cortex and sends to motor
Striatum: part of basal ganglia.
o Corpus callosum connects 2 hemisphere of cerebral cortex..
The development of evolution of Nervous system.
Hind brain forms first then midbrain then forebrain. Ontogeny: how brain develops in individual
Phylogeny: how brain develops in species
First nervous system found in worms where spinal cord connected
to brain by commissure.
Genes do not predict individual characteristic.
Investigating the brain
Broca: injured broca can’t speak but can understand
Wernicke: injured Wernicke: can’t understand but can speak
Phinease Gage: after healing his pipe through face, his injured
frontal lobe showed that frontal lobe involved in emotion regulation,
planning, decision making.
Split brain procedure: make one hemisphere stay at one
hemisphere(e.g if seizure moves from one side to other side=bad.
If seizure stays in one side, relieved)
o Sperry pointed out that corpus callosum show that both brain
work together to process information.
o Chimeric face: use half face picture for identification.
eGG: eclectroencephalograph: device used to record electrical
activity in brain.
o Featured detectors: neurons selectively respond to certain
aspect of a visual image. (respond to 45 angle compare to
Structural brain imaging: basic structure of brain to see
o CT scan: density of the brain. Locate tumor. Xray
o Magnetic resonance imaging: soft tissue. Clearer.
o Ct/MRI does not show brain function
Functional brain imaging: information of cognitive/motor task
o Positron emission tomography: PET: harmless radioactive
substance injected into blood stream. It shows activation of
which part of brain (e.g when you speak, Broca/s area shows)
o Functional magnetic resonance imaging: FMRI: detects
twisting of hemoglobin molecutels in blood. Unlike PET, FMRI has no radioactive substance. FMIRI
detect faster. FRMI better. Sensation and Perception 8/1/2013 5:42:00 PM
Psychophysics: methods to measure strength of a stimulus/observer’s
sensitivity to the stimulus
Operationalize: finding reliable ways to measure
Perception: measure psychological experience.
o Gustav Fechner developed psychophysics. Researcher ask
people to make judgement(if they saw light or not)
Absolute threshold: minimal intensity needed to detect stimulus. (a
o Sensory threshold: vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste. (did
you see it or not)
o Maybe detece 50% or not detect 50%
Human excel in detecting changes in stimulation.
Just noticeable difference: the minimal change in a stimulus that
can detect change.
o JND small : when response is dim/bright
o JND big : when response is bright
Weber’s law: the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a
constant proportion despite variations in intensity. The measured
size of difference is irrelevant. The proportion between stimuli is
important (20.1 kg vs 22 kg. you would notice 22 kg.)
Signal detection theory: observation that the response to a stimulus
depends on both a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of
noise and on person’s response.
Noise=competition=all other stimuli coming from internal/external
If sensory evidence exceed criteria: observer says yes I detect
If sensory evidence short of criteria, observer say no I did not
Hit: light present, observer says yes
Miss: light present, observer say no.
False alarm: light not present, observer say yes
Correct rejection: light not present, observer say no.
Perceptual sensitivity: how effectively the perceptual system
represents sensory event ( not from observer strategy) o Liberal criteria: check every cancer case (and miss on true
cancer/falsealarm: cancer not present, but say it is)
o Conservative criteria; cut down false alarm but miss cancer
Sensory adaptation: sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline
over time as an organism adapts to current conditions.
Our percetptual system emphasizes on changes.
Vision1: how eyes/brain convert light waves to neural signals
Visual acuity: ability to see fine detail
3 properties of light waves: length (color), amplitude
o so light is: length, ampliutude purity
o so humans see: color, brightness, saturation.
o Retina: light sensitive tissue lining back of eyeball
o Accommodation: eye maintain clear image on retina.
o Myopia: nearsightedness. Image focus front of retina.
o Hyperopia: farsightedness. Image focus back of retina.
Photoreceptor cells in retina: cones/ rods
Cones: photoreceptors that detect color in daylight
Rod: photoreceptors that detect dim light in night (more sensitive)
Fovea: area of retina where vision clearest, but no rod. (this
decrease sharp vision.
o With no rod regions, you can detect other stars with a lot of
o With cones, you can detect why objects to the side, aren’t
Neural signalrod/conebiipolar cellretinal ganglion cellsoptic
o Optic nerve: blind spot: no rod/cone. Location in visual field
that produce no sensation in retina.
Receptive field: region of sensory surface that, when stimulated,
cause change in firing rate of neuron.
o On center cell: central excitatory zone surround by inhibitory
o Off-center cell: central inhibitory zone surround by excitatory
Additive color mixing: mixing our 3 colors: red,greenblue. Subtractive color mixing: deducting color
Trichromatic color representation: 3 cones to provide code for each
o Color deficienty: genetic disorder of color blind.
Color afterimage:staring at one color too long fatigue the cones.
Color opponent system: pairs of visual neurons working in opposite.
(you look at green/red. Red=excite. Green-inhibit. So once you
stare at green, cones weaken. Then quickly look at red, cones
strengthen and red is emphasized)
The visual brain
Retina optic nervelateral geniculate nucleus in thalamus.--> Area
V1(part of occipital lobe that contains primary visual cortex)
Neural system of perceiving shape
V1 area is used for encoding edge orientation.
2 visual streams(visual ways) for occipital cortex to visual area to brain.
Ventral streamoccipital lobetemporal lobe
o Damage temporal lobe=cannot recognize face.
Dorsaloccipital lobe parietal lobebrain(location/motion)
o Dorsal used for aiming, tracking, reaching.
Visual form agnosia: inability to recognize objects by sight.
Optic ataxia:dorsal damage and cannot guide reaching motion. But
can recognize face.
Vision 2: Recognizing what we perceive.
Binding problem: how features are linked together so we see unify object.
Illusory conjunction: perceptual mistake where features from multiple
objects are incorrectly combined.
Treisman and Schmidt say illusory conjuction occur because of
feature integration theory: idea that focused attention is not
required to detect individual features but required to bind features
together. (you have to see the things together, not individually)
Illusory conjunctions occur when it is difficult for participants to pay
attention to features .
Role of parietal lobe
Damaged parietal lobe=illusory conujunctions When TMS added to turn off parietal lobe, illusory conjunction
increased. When TMS added, occipital lobe not affected.
Synesthesia: stimulating one part of the sense/body to stimulate another
Normal binding of colors=response to feature of external stimulus.
In synesthesia, color is not external stimulus.
In fmri study, synethesthic activate parietal lobe. TMS interfere with
synethestic . ex) we name color green faster than orange.but when
ignore numbers, it is difficult
Recognizing objects by sight.
Modular view: specialized brain areas/modules to detect
faces/houses/body parts in order to recognize. In fmri studies,
temporal lobe responds to face. We have neurons specialized for
Distributed representation: (different from modular): patterns of
activity that identifies objects.
Perceptual constancy: perceptual principle staing that aspects of
sensory signal change, but perception stays the same
o People with seizure/epilepsy still had temporal lobe neurons
o Perception sensitive to change, but perceptual constancy
allow us to notice differences in the first place ( this is why
you can still recognize friend after haircut)
Principles of perceptual organization
o Perceptual grouping rules: govern how features/regions of
things fit together.
o 1) simplicity: Gestlat grouping rule of Pragnanz: visual
system tend to select simplest interpretation
o 2) closure: we fill in missing elements of visual scene
o continuity: Gestalts says ‘good continuation’ where edges
have the same orientation tend to be grouped together.
o 3) similarity: regions that are similar in
color,light,shape,texture are same object
o 4)proximity: objects close together are grouped
o 5)common fate; elements that move together are one single
object. Separating figure from ground
o Figure(words/professor). Background(paper/classroom)
o Edgar Rubin: Rubin vase=reversible figure gorund
relationship where we see a vase or 2 people. In fmri, when
people select to see 2 people face, temporal lobe is activated.
Theories of object recognition.
o Template: mental representation that an be compared to a
viewed shape in retinal image. In image based object
recognition theory, object you seen before is stored in
memory of template. (you have a template for different cup
o Parts base object recognition theory: view objects into
collection of parts. Geons: combine objects(combine letters
into words. It explains categorical features, not individual
features. It shows how you can recognize face, but not
distinguish between face a/face b
Perceiving depth and size.
Depth cues: changes are you move through space
Monoculare depth cues: aspect of a scene that yield information
about depth from one eye. (distance and size)
o Relative size: brain perceives distance
o Familia size: we use to perceive the difference in distance and
size. ( the person seems like an ant, but familiar size, you
know normal people are 7 feet.)
o Linear perspective: parallel lines seem to converge.
o Texture gradient: when patterns become less /more uniform.
o Interposition: one object blocks another object. (cannot infer
distance between blocked objects)
o Relative height in image: objects closer=lower visual field.
(flower). Objects farther=higher visual field( mountain)
Binocular disparity: difference in retinal image of 2 eyes about
o Sir Charles wheatstone invent stereoscope.
o Illusion: errors of perception, memory, judgement, which
subjective differs from objective. o Ames room shows that brain is fooled ot think, if 2 objects
are the same size, the one farther away is bigger.
Perceiving motion and change.
Apparent motion: perception of movement as a result of alternating
signals appearing in rapid succession in different location.
MT in temporal lobe specialize in visual perception of motion.
Waterfall illusion: sensory adaptation: you look at waterfall and
then rock, you feel the same downfall movement of rock. When one
motion detector cell fatigue, another takes over.
Phi phenomenon: shows the sense of motion illusion of flashing
lights in Las vagas buildings
Common fate: Gestalt: people see series of flashing light as a
Change blindness: people fail to detect change in visual details of
scene. Focus attention is important for binding together features of
objects. Change blindness occurs when no focus on visual. (you
don’t notice that the person standing in front of you is not the same
man a few seconds ago in the subway)
Inattentional blindness: failure to perceive objects not in focus of
attention: students using cellphone fail to see a clown on street.
Pure tone: simple sound wave that increase air press then vacuum.
3 parts of sound wave: frequency, amplitude,complexity. = pitch, loudness,
frequency: how often the peak is. = pitch: how low/high sound is
amplitude: height of threshold=loudness: sound intensity.
Complexity: mixing frequency: timbre: listeners experience of
sound quality/resonance. (flute/trumpet difference0
Frequency provide most information.
The human ear.
Outer ear : collects sound waves
o Pinnaauditory canaleardrum
Middle ear; transmit vibration
Inner ear; transduce into neural impulse o Cochlea(fluid filled tube that is for organ of auditory
transduction) bailar membrane(undulates when vibration
from ossicles reach cochlear fluid). heair cells(specialized
auditory receptor neurons embedded in basilar membrane).
Inner ear thalamuscontralateral(opposite side hemisphere of
cerebral cortex) A1(portion of temporal lobe that contain primary
auditory cortex).--> left analyze language. Right analyze
Spatial auditory features, allow you to locate source of sound by
areas at the back of auditory cortex.
Non spatial features(acoustic sound) are at the ventral part of
Our ears have 2 ways to encode sound-wave frequency, (1)low
frequency 2) high frequency
o Place code: cochlea encodes different frequency at different
location at basilar membrane
When frequency low, apec of basilar membrane move
When frequency high, base of membrane moves the
Place code works better in high frequency
o Temporal code: cochlea encode low frequency through firing
action potential entering auditory nerve
Temporal code does not work well as place code for
high frequency. Because there is limited range of action
Both temporal/place code work together to detect pitch.
Localizing sound sources.
Loudness decreases as sound move from side to side of head.
Loudness has no difference if it’s in front of head.
Haptic perceptionL active exploration of environment by touching objects
with our hands.
4 receptors on skin to sense pressure, texture, pattern, vibration.
3 important principle
1)contralateral organization.: left half body =right brain. Right half
body=left brain. 2) regions devoted for more sensitivity. Lip/fingers are good for
discriminating detail. Lower back cannot.
3) parietal lobe involved
congenital insensitivity to pain: inherited disorder that impair pain
perception(can’t detect pain. Kids bite tongue, scratch until bleed)
A-delta fibers: transmite initial sharp pain (sudden injury)
C-fiber: transmit long dull pain after initial injury.
If you step on something sharp, first A-fibers would die down then
Referred pain: feeling of pain when sensory information from
internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cell in the
spinal cord. (e.g during heart attack, feel pain on left arm rather
than chest) (e.g you burn finger, it may be your muscle aching, but
you think it’s skin)
Gate control theory: theory of pain perception based on idea that
signals arriving from pain receptor in body can be stop (gated by
interneurons in spinal cord through feedback from 2 directions).
Periaqueductal gray: neural feed back from midbrain. (during
stress, endorphins activate PaG to send inhibitory signal to spinal
cord to suppress pain. PAg activated through opiate/morphine).
Bottom up control:brain process information
Top down control: descending pain from midtrain.
Vestibular system: 3 fluid filled semicircular canals and organs near
cochlea in innear ear. It detect motion to maintain balance
Flavor: smell + taste
Olfactory receptor neurons: receptor cells that initiate the sense of
smell.--> bind to odorant.--> olfactory bulb: brain structure located
above nasal cavity beneath frontal lobes).--> glomerulus
Smell is determine by bottom-up influence(odorant bind to site on
ORN0 and top down influence
Fmri show orbiotofrontal cortex involved: to code pleasant memory.
Pheromones: biochemical odorants emitted by other members of its
species that can affect an animal’s behavior/physiology. o Positron emission tomography to study 2 odor.
Tesosteron(men sweat). Estrogen(women urine).
o Straight men respond to estrogen. Lesbian resond to
estrogen. Straight women respond to testosterone, gay men
respond to testosterone.e
Papille: small bumps. In papille are taste bud(organ of taste
transduction). Salt, bitter, sweet, sour, umami. In taste bud are
microvilli that react with tastant molecules.
Umami: protein/glutamate/monosodium glutamate MSG.
Taster: mild bitter. Nontaster: not bitter. Supertaster: extreme
Synesthesia: perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another
Sensation: stimulation of sense organ
Perception: organization, interpretation of sensati