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Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA01H3 (1,192)
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Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

CHAPTER3BiologicalPsychology31GeneticandEvolutionaryPerspectivesonBehaviorDebates about nature vs nurture have been going on for decades and psych provides some insightHumans have a strong tendency to think in eitheror categories yesno truefalse blackwhiteEvidence suggests that nature and nurture lie along a continuum with some traits subject to greater influence from genes while others are more environmentally basedGenes and experience are never independent instead they interact to make us who we areNaturenurture question doesnt split into two exclusive possibilitiesHEREDITYANDBEHAVIORBehaviour is equally influenced by genes just as physical characteristics areResearch involves comparing people of differing levels of relatedness or studying specific genes at that molecular levelTheGeneticCodeEntire genetic code found in the nucleusGENES basic units of heredity they are responsible for guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up our physical structures and regulate development and physiological processes throughout the life spanGenes are organized along chromosomesCHROMOSOMES structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an individual inheritsHumans have approximately 30000 genes distributed across 23 pairs of chromosomes half from the mother half from the fatherGenes are made of DNA deoxyribonucleic acidDNA a molecule formed in a doublehelix shape that contains four amino acids adenine cytosine guanine and thymineEach gene is a unique combo of these four amino acids sequenceSequence represents the code used to create proteinsGenes instruct cells how to behave which type of molecules to produce and when to produce themTraits that show genetic variation eye color facial features etc do so because of differences in the amino acid sequencing of A C G and T as well as through environmental interactionsGENOTYPE the genetic makeup of an organismoUnique set of genes that compose every chromosome represents the genotypePHENOTYPE consists of the observable characteristics including physical structures and behaviorsGenotype represents what was inherited while the phenotype represents the physical and behavioural manifestation of the genotype via environmental interactionsGenes come in pairs 1 from each parent aligned along the chromosomesIf 2 corresponding genes on a pair of chromosomes are the same they are homozygousIf they differ they are heterozygousWhether a trait is expressed depends on which combination is inheritedoFOR EXAMPLE ability to taste a very bitter substance called phenylthiocarbamide PTC is based on the comb of genes inherited from either parentoTest performed by placing a small tab of paper soaked in PTC on the tongueotasters cringe at the bitter tasteonontasters taste only the paperoTasters inherit at least one copy of the dominant gene for tasting from either parentoTasters are either homozygous dominant TT or heterozygous TtoNontasters are homozygous recessive ttinherited recessive copy from both parentsoBrussels sprouts cauliflower and cabbage contain PTC BehaviouralGeneticsTwinandAdoptionStudiesFor many centuries clearest evidence of inherited behaviour seen with animal breeding where animals dogs had been reared to be hunters herders protectors or companionsBEHAVIORAL GENETICS study of how genes and environment influence behaviour
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