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Chapter 7

Psychology Chapter 7.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology Chapter 7 Learning and Behaviour Learning is an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience As environmental conditions change we learn new behaviours and tend to eliminate older ones But changes in behaviour dont always show learninglearing may occur without obvious changes in behaviour Behaviour is changeable in response to certain circumstances As conditions change we learn new habits and behaviours and eliminate older ones No all changes are caused by learning there are physical and emotional impacts that take place as wellfatigue fearfulness etcExperience alters the structure and chemistry of the brain Performance is the behavioural change new behaviour produced by internal changes that are brought about by learningHABITUATIONThe simplest form of learning involves learning not to respond to insignificant events that occur repeatedly Habituation helps an organisms behaviour become sensitive to more important stimuli such as those involving survival and protection when we hear an ubrupt noise we are conditioned to have an orienting response Orienting response any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs eyes ears nose toward the source of a novel stimulusBut if you hear the noise over and over again you become used to it Habituation learning to not to respond to events that occur repeatedly Snails retreated into shells when hearing a loud noise but when the tapping noise was repeated the snails got used to the noise and not all of them retreated into their shells George Humphrey 1933But performance can be effected by other factors not a direct sign of learning Short term habituation habituation is temporary Snails will continue to withdrawal into their shells when hearing a tapping noise if the experiment is conducted after a couple of days This shows that the results are temporary Long term habituation can be conducted on animals that have a more complex nervous system when you move to a new house and cant sleep because of random noises you eventually get used to itWhen stimuli are massed into quick repetitionshabituation is rapid but short termWhen stimuli is presented in small groups and spaced over time the habituation is slower but long termCLASSICAL CONDITIONINGClassical conditioning involves learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur hungry smell food mouth watersIf you see someone that you had an argument with you will feel the same emotions that you had when you argued Watching a scary movie learned the relationship between the music and upcoming fright Sudden sights and sounds can cause an automatic unlearned reaction Our movie theatre fear has been classically conditioned to certain musical motifs that were once neutral soundsPAVOLVS DISCOVERYPavlovs wanted to discover the neural mechanisms that were involved in granular secretions during digestion Pavlov wanted to study the salivary processes of dogs in test sessions1Placed dry food powder in the dogs mouth and then collected the saliva
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