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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - The Ways and Means of Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2The Ways and Means of PsychologyThe Scientific MethodA set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments Rules are not arbitrary they are based on logic and common sense Three major types of scientific research 1 Naturalistic Observation observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environments Clinical Observation observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatmento Methods are least formal and constrained by the fewest ruleso Provide the foundations of the biological and social scienceso A researcher might perceive new facts following careful observation o Example some people take much longer than others to identify the hidden objects in images2 Correlational Study examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animalso Involves more formal measurementof environmental events of individuals physical and social characteristics and of their behaviouro Researchers examine the relations of these measurements in an attempt to explain the observed behaviourso Example might note that you and your friends seem to bring the 3D object into focus much faster when a small 2D picture of the object appears alongside the image 3 Experiment study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of the dependent variableo Only experiments can confirm the existence of causeandeffect relations among variableso Example can provide concrete evidence about the casual role that you believe visual hints play in seeing the 3D objects5 steps of the scientific method that apply to experiments1 Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical causeandeffect relations among variableso Involves identifying variables particular behaviours and particular environmental and physiological events and describing the relations among them in general terms 2 Design the experiment o Involve the manipulation of independent variables and observation of dependent variableso Each variable must be operationally definedo Independent variable must be controlled so that only it and no other variable is responsible for any changes in the dependent variable
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