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PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Chapter 8

chapter 8

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Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 8 Memory Overview of memory Memory- the cognitive process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information o Encoding- refers to the process of putting stimulus info into a form that can be used by our memory system o Storage- process of maintaining info in memory o Retrieval- process of locating and using stored info 1949 Donald Hebb: Dual trace theory used the activelatent distinction to suggest that the brain remembered information in 2 different ways o Info that is active ; neurons fire continuously o He thought it was like this bc of the feedback circuits of neurons; more firing= stronger synaptic efficiency of circuit The brain retains traces of an experience either in an active state or in latent structural state o Latent and inactivated state; the info is not always available; we dont always actively think of the ppl we have met o Active state; when youre highly conscious of your surroundings, you take notice of the restaurants; all youre activities can be precisely described 1960- Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin suggested that memory has 3 forms 1. Sensory memory (deal w active traces of memory) 2. Short term memory (deal w active traces of memory) 3. Long term memory (deal w latent traces) Sensory memory a type of memory where we perceive physical things or physical features of a stimulus that are stored in our memory memory lasts for a very brief tine- a second or less this type of memory is hard to distinguish btw memory and perception contains all or most of the info we have just perceived or a slight echo of what we heard function: hold info long enough to become part of the next form of memory; short- term memory Short term memory immediate type of memory that we have just perceived memory capacity is limited in the number of items it can store and the duration example: youre at the movies- youre in theatre 6 o you just need to remember theatre 6 long enough to find the entrance o keeping it active= repeating it o inactive= talking to a friend in btw and buy food info leaves short term permanently or it can go into long term memory by rehearsing it enough times to go there Long term memory info perceived or represented is permanent or near permanent basis www.notesolution.com no known limits, relatively durable long term memory occurs bc of physical changes in brain *info that flows from one type of memory to the next = MODAL MODEL* SENSORY MEMORY info from here is stored long enough until it goes to short term memory we are aware of sensory memory only when info is presented briefly so we can see its after effects o example: thunderstorm- bright flash of light reveals a scene, we see things before we recognize it 2 forms of sensory memory o Iconic (visual) o Echoic (auditory) memory ICONIC (VISUAL) ICON = IMAGE Briefly holds a visual representation of a scene that has just been perceived Iconic AKA visible persistence o bc our Representation is closely tied to perception whole report procedure: a method where participants are presented w visual stimulis like flash cards and ppl have to recall as many letters or flash cards as they could partial report procedure: a method to determine the limitations iconic memory may have; where there are delays after each flash card o delays after each sound card = info fading before it could transfer to long term memory ECHOIC MEMORY (AUDITORY) auditory sensory memory sensory memory for sounds that we just perceive we cant identify words until weve heard all of the sounds o example: HAR means nothing o harvest is different from harbour partial report procedures suggest that echoic memory last less than 4 seconds o repeated patterns of random or white noise indicates that echoic memory can last up to 20 seconds SHORT TERM OR WORKING MEMORY Short term memory- limited capacity; most info that enters is forgotten Info can enter short term memory from either sensory memory or long term memory Not all info is directly from long term memory o Its first moved into short term memory, then recalled from long term o Short term memory contains info were trying to encode info and when were trying to retrieve it Working memory- term used for short term memory that contains both new info and info retrieved from long term memory www.notesolution.com
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