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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11.doc

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 11  DEVELOPMENTAL PHYSCHOLOGY – study of continuity and change across the life span  ZYGOTE – fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg o GERMINAL STAGE – 2 week period after conception – cell division o EMBRYONIC STAGE – second week-eight week – start to make cells that are reminiscent of body parts  Called an embryo at this point o FETAL STAGE – 9 weeks until birth – further maturation of body o MYLUNATION – formation of fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron o Humans born with brains 25% of its adult size, chimps 60% of adult size  Bigger heads wouldn’t pass through the vag  It allows up to develop as we mature – better at adapting  Placenta – organ that physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and the developing embryo or foetus and permits the exchange of materials – anything can be passed o TERATOGENS – agents that dmg the process of development, literally monster makers o FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME – development disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy  Distinct facial features, brain abnormalities and cognitive defects o Tobacco is another teratogen o Embryo more vulnerable than foetus – central nervous system still vulnerable. o Foetus is familiar with its mother’s voice – recognition outside the womb  Developmental psychology studies continuity and change across the life span.  The prenatal stage of development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg, producing a zygote. The zygote, which contains chromosomes from both the egg and the sperm, develops into an embryo at 2 weeks and then into a fetus at 8 weeks.  The fetal environment has important physical and psychological influences on the fetus. In addition to the food a pregnant woman eats, teratogens, or agents that impair fetal development, can affect the fetus. Some of the most common teratogens are tobacco and alcohol.  Although the fetus cannot see much in the womb, it can hear sounds and become familiar with those it hears often, such as its mother’s voice.  INFANCY – is the stage of development that begins at birth and least between 18 and 24 months  Newborns can see at 20 ft what a normal adult can see at 600 ft  Habituation – tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus as the frequency to the stimulus increases  Newborns are more attentive to social stimuli – faces and such – they also mimic expressions (first hour of life?)  MOTOR DEVELOPMENT – is the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions such as reaching grasping, crawling and walking  REFLEXES – specific patters of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation o Rooting – tendency for infants to move their mouths towards anything that touches their cheek o Sucking – suck any object that enters their mouths – both help with feeding  Eventually disappear as they learn more sophisticated behaviour  CEPHALOCAUDAL RULE (top to bottom) the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet o Infants gain control of their head, then arms, then torso and legs last  PROXIMODISTAL RULE (inside to outside) – tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the centre to the periphery  Timing of motor skills is influenced by many factors, such as the baby’s incentive for reaching body weight, muscular development, and general level of activity o They accomplish the goals in different ways  Piaget – big glass liquid vs small glass liquid  COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT – the emergence of the ability to think and understand o Between infancy and adulthood, children must come to understand  How the physical world works  How their minds represent it  How other minds represent it  Piaget – 4 stages of cognitive development o SENSORIMOTOR – stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy  use their sense and their ability to move to gather information about the world to construct schemas  SCHEMA – theories about or models of the way the world works  ASSIMILATION – when infants apply their schemas in novel situations  ACCOMODATION – when infants revise their schemas in light of new information  Infants do not have a theory of object permanence  OBJECT PERMANENCE – the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. • Peek-a-boo • Recent experiments show that they have some idea of this at 4months? o CHILDHOOD – stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence which begins between 11-14 (not a stage of cognitive development) o Piaget – childhood has preoperational stage and the concrete operational stage o PREOPERATIONAL – stage of development that begins at about 2, and ends at about 6, during which the child learns about physical or concrete objects o CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE b- stage of development that begins at around 6 and ends at about 1, during which the child learns how various actions or “operations” can affect or transform those objects o Preoperational vs concrete – pennies in a line vs a wider spaced line  Quantity does not change when spreading out alters appearance  CONSERVATION – notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object’s appearance  Centration – tendency to focus on just one property of an object to the exclusion of all others  Reversibility – do not consider the fact that the operation made the line of pennies longer could be reversed  Don’t realize they have minds(?) and that they contain mental representations of the world – appearances vs reality o FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE – is the stage of development that begins around age 11 and lasts through adulthood  Marks the end of childhood  People in this stage are able to reason systematically about abstract concepts such as liberty and love and about events that will happen, might have happened and that never happened  Preoperational children don’t fully grasp that other people may interpret things differently o EGOCENTRISM – is the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers  Children also have trouble understanding that other do not know what they know o False belief test – moving chocolate from location to another then asking where the person who hid it would look first  kids pass test around 4-6  For 3-year-old kids the past seld is like another person – thus the past seld must have known what you know now o When kid understands the concept of mental representation they can understand that different people sometimes have different accounts  Even kids who don’t understand that people have different perceptions or beliefs understand that people have different desires o It takes kids a while, however, to realize that other people may have emotional reactions unlike their own o Little red riding hood – don’t understand why she isn’t scared when she’s with the wolf disguised as her grandma  THEORY OF MIND – is the idea that human behaviour is guided by mental representations o Autism – have difficulty communicating with other people and making friends – do they fail to acquire theory of mind?  Difficulty in understanding the inner life of other people: false beliefs, belief-based emotion, self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment and shame o Deaf children whose parents do now know sign language - slow to lean to communicate because they do not have ready access to any form of conventional language – slows development of their understanding of other minds  Attaining theory of mind is influenced by a number of factors – number of siblings, frequency of role playing, imaginary friends, socioeconomic status, language is most important o Language about thought and feelings is an important tool for heloing children make sense of their own and others’ minds  Kids don’t progress from stage to stage like grades as Piaget thought – its all continuous – ramp vs stairs o Kids are also faster than what Piaget predicted  Vygotsky – cognitive development was largely the result of the child’s interaction with members of his or her own culture rather than their interaction with concrete objects o Counting experiment  Social Referencing ex – child gets new toy, looks to mother to see her reaction about its safety  Imitation – the ability to do what another person does  Children who were kept in isolation developed physically and developmentally slower  Bowlby - Since human babies cannot physically stay close to their caregivers, they do things that cause their caregivers to stay close to them -cries, gurgle, coos, makes eye contact etc o Babies keep a mentally tally of who responds most often and most promptly and begin to target their signals to the best responder or primary caregiver (PC) – emotional center of their universe  Take action to try and get closer – motor development o Human infants are predisposed to form an attachment, or emotional bond, with a primary caregiver  Those who don’t suffer a variety of social and emotional deficits  Ainsworth: STRANGE SITUATION – a behavioural test used to determine a child’s attachment style – PC and child enter lab room and do shit, some of the time the PC isn’t there o Secure attachment – calmed by presence of PC if they knew they were gone, acknowledge their return with a glance or greeting (60%) o Avoidant – are not distressed when the caregiver leaves and do not acknowledge their return (20%) o Ambivalent – distressed when they leave then rebuff attempts to calm them when they return (15%) o Disorganized – no consistent pattern (5%)  Correlated to behaviour at home, secure is most common around the world  INTERNAL WORKING MODEL OF RELATIONSHIPS – a set of beliefs about the self, the primary care-giver, and the relationship between them o Infants with different attachment styles appear to have different working models of relationships  Secure – believe the PC will respond  Avoidant – believe the PC will do nothing  Ambivalent – uncertain the PC will respond  Disorganized – seemed to be confused about caregivers – abused?  Temperaments – characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity o Very young children vary in their tendency t
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