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Chapter 10

PSYA02 - Chapter 10

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Steve Joordens

PSYA02 – Chapter 10 – Intelligence - Williams Syndrome o Caused by the absence of 20 genes on chromosome 7, impairing a person’s general cognitive abilities leaving them with a talent for music and language o Have an “elfin” facial appearance - Intelligence: The ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to one’s circumstances and learn from one’s experiences How Can Intelligence Be Measured? - 1920, Henry Goddard administered intelligence tests to arriving immigrants at Ellis Island and concluded that the overwhelming majority of Jews, Hungarians, Italians and Russians were “feebleminded” o Used his test to identify feebleminded American families who he claimed were responsible for the nation’s social problems; suggested the government to segregate them in isolated colonies and “take away from these people the power of procreation”  USA passed laws restricting immigration of people from Southern and Eastern Europe, & 27 states passed laws requiring the sterilization of “mental defectives” The Intelligence Quotient - 19 Century, France instituted a sweeping set of education reforms that made primary school available to children of every social class; suddenly there was a diverse mix of children who differed dramatically in their rediness to learn o French government asked Alfred Binet (psychologist) and Theodore Simon (physician) to develop remedial programs for those who lagged behind - Binet and Simon set out to develop an objective test that would provide an unbiased measure of a child’s ability o Began with tasks that could distinguish one from another  Ex. Solving logic problems, remembering words, copying pictures, distinguishing edible and inedible foods, making rhymes, and answering questions o Designed their test to measure a child’s aptitude for learning independent of the child’s prior educational achievement --- “Natural Intelligence” test - William Stern (Germ psychologist) suggested that this mental level could be thought of as a child’s mental age o To determine whether a child was developing normally was to examine the ratio of the child’s mental age to the child’s physical age - Lewis Terman (American psychologist) formalized the comparison with the intelligence quotient or ratio IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a person’s mental age by the person’s physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100 - Deviation IQ: A statistic obtained by dividing a person’s test score by the average test score or people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100 o Disadvantage: Does not allow comparisons between people of different age groups o Advantage: A person cannot simply become a genius by simply getting older The Logic of Intelligence Test - To design an intelligence test… o We assume that a property called intelligence leads people to experience a wide variety of consequences o It would be highly impractical to measure these consequences, we devised an easily administered set of tasks instead, who successful completion is known to be correlated with those consequences  Could call it an “intelligence test” – what we mean by that phrase “a measurement of a person’s performance on tasks that are correlated with the consequences that intelligence produces” - Intelligence tests measure the ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly correlated with the ability to get good grades, solve real-world problems and etc. - Most widely used intelligence tests are: o Standford-Binet o WAIS (The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)  Both test require respondents to answer a variety of questions and solve a variety of problems The Consequences of Intelligence - Intelligence test scores are highly correlated with just about every outcome that human beings care about – grades, jobs, money, health, longevity - Intelligence test scores is the best predictor of the numbers of years of education an individual will receive – predicting occupational status and income o Strong correlation between the average intelligence score of a nation and its overall economic status - Intelligence test scores predict how well employees perform in their jobs, and job performance correlates more highly with intelligence than with factors such as performance during a job interview/education - Intelligence test scores also predict people’s performance on basic cognitive tasks; predictors of a person’s political and religious attitudes: The more intelligent people are, the more likely they are to be liberal and atheistic Is Intelligence One Ability or Many? A Hierarchy of Abilities - Charles Spearman invented a technique known as factor analysis: A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors o Reasoning: If there really is a single, general ability called intelligence that enables people to perform a variety of intelligent behaviours, then those who have this ability should do well at just about everything and those who lack it should do well at just about nothing - Spearman’s research: Measuring how well school-age children could discriminate small differences in colour, auditory pitch and weight and then correlated these scores with the children grades in different academic subjects o Discovered:  1. Most of these measure were indeed positively correlated  2. Although different measures were positively correlated, they were not perfectly correlated: The child who had the very highest score on one measure didn’t necessarily have the very highest score on every measure - Two factor theory of intelligence: Every task requires a combination of a general ability (g) and skills that are specific to a task (s) - Louis Thurstone (1938) concluded that there was actually no such thing as “g” and that there were instead a few table and independent mental abilities o Perceptual ability, verbal ability, and numerical ability – called primary mental abilities  Neither general like “g” or specific like “s” o Therefore, we have abilities such as verbal ability and perceptual ability but no general ability called intelligence - Confirmation Factor Analysis shows that the correlations between scores on different mental ability tests are best described by a three-level hierarchy; a general factor at the top, specific factor at the bottom, and a set of factors called group factors - This hierarchy suggest that people have a very general ability called intelligence, which is make up of small set of middle-level abilities, which are made up of a large set of specific abilities that are unique to particular tasks The Middle Level- Abilities The Data-Based Approach - There are two middle-level abilities, we call “physical coordination” and “academic skill” o Suggests that different specific abilities are made possible by a single middle-level ability that is unrelated to other middle-level ability, enabling people to do different skills - John Carroll (psychologist) found that the pattern of correlations among tests suggested the existence of eight independent middle-level abilities o 1. Memory and Learning o 2. Visual Perception o 3. Audi
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