Textbook Notes (368,330)
Canada (161,803)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 10

PSYA02 - Chapter 10
Premium

7 Pages
126 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYA02 – Chapter 10 – Intelligence - Williams Syndrome o Caused by the absence of 20 genes on chromosome 7, impairing a person’s general cognitive abilities leaving them with a talent for music and language o Have an “elfin” facial appearance - Intelligence: The ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to one’s circumstances and learn from one’s experiences How Can Intelligence Be Measured? - 1920, Henry Goddard administered intelligence tests to arriving immigrants at Ellis Island and concluded that the overwhelming majority of Jews, Hungarians, Italians and Russians were “feebleminded” o Used his test to identify feebleminded American families who he claimed were responsible for the nation’s social problems; suggested the government to segregate them in isolated colonies and “take away from these people the power of procreation”  USA passed laws restricting immigration of people from Southern and Eastern Europe, & 27 states passed laws requiring the sterilization of “mental defectives” The Intelligence Quotient - 19 Century, France instituted a sweeping set of education reforms that made primary school available to children of every social class; suddenly there was a diverse mix of children who differed dramatically in their rediness to learn o French government asked Alfred Binet (psychologist) and Theodore Simon (physician) to develop remedial programs for those who lagged behind - Binet and Simon set out to develop an objective test that would provide an unbiased measure of a child’s ability o Began with tasks that could distinguish one from another  Ex. Solving logic problems, remembering words, copying pictures, distinguishing edible and inedible foods, making rhymes, and answering questions o Designed their test to measure a child’s aptitude for learning independent of the child’s prior educational achievement --- “Natural Intelligence” test - William Stern (Germ psychologist) suggested that this mental level could be thought of as a child’s mental age o To determine whether a child was developing normally was to examine the ratio of the child’s mental age to the child’s physical age - Lewis Terman (American psychologist) formalized the comparison with the intelligence quotient or ratio IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a person’s mental age by the person’s physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100 - Deviation IQ: A statistic obtained by dividing a person’s test score by the average test score or people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100 o Disadvantage: Does not allow comparisons between people of different age groups o Advantage: A person cannot simply become a genius by simply getting older The Logic of Intelligence Test - To design an intelligence test… o We assume that a property called intelligence leads people to experience a wide variety of consequences o It would be highly impractical to measure these consequences, we devised an easily administered set of tasks instead, who successful completion is known to be correlated with those consequences  Could call it an “intelligence test” – what we mean by that phrase “a measurement of a person’s performance on tasks that are correlated with the consequences that intelligence produces” - Intelligence tests measure the ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly correlated with the ability to get good grades, solve real-world problems and etc. - Most widely used intelligence tests are: o Standford-Binet o WAIS (The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)  Both test require respondents to answer a variety of questions and solve a variety of problems The Consequences of Intelligence - Intelligence test scores are highly correlated with just about every outcome that human beings care about – grades, jobs, money, health, longevity - Intelligence test scores is the best predictor of the numbers of years of education an individual will receive – predicting occupational status and income o Strong correlation between the average intelligence score of a nation and its overall economic status - Intelligence test scores predict how well employees perform in their jobs, and job performance correlates more highly with intelligence than with factors such as performance during a job interview/education - Intelligence test scores also predict people’s performance on basic cognitive tasks; predictors of a person’s political and religious attitudes: The more intelligent people are, the more likely they are to be liberal and atheistic Is Intelligence One Ability or Many? A Hierarchy of Abilities - Charles Spearman invented a technique known as factor analysis: A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors o Reasoning: If there really is a single, general ability called intelligence that enables people to perform a variety of intelligent behaviours, then those who have this ability should do well at just about everything and those who lack it should do well at just about nothing - Spearman’s research: Measuring how well school-age children could discriminate small differences in colour, auditory pitch and weight and then correlated these scores with the children grades in different academic subjects o Discovered:  1. Most of these measure were indeed positively correlated  2. Although different measures were positively correlated, they were not perfectly correlated: The child who had the very highest score on one measure didn’t necessarily have the very highest score on every measure - Two factor theory of intelligence: Every task requires a combination of a general ability (g) and skills that are specific to a task (s) - Louis Thurstone (1938) concluded that there was actually no such thing as “g” and that there were instead a few table and independent mental abilities o Perceptual ability, verbal ability, and numerical ability – called primary mental abilities  Neither general like “g” or specific like “s” o Therefore, we have abilities such as verbal ability and perceptual ability but no general ability called intelligence - Confirmation Factor Analysis shows that the correlations between scores on different mental ability tests are best described by a three-level hierarchy; a general factor at the top, specific factor at the bottom, and a set of factors called group factors - This hierarchy suggest that people have a very general ability called intelligence, which is make up of small set of middle-level abilities, which are made up of a large set of specific abilities that are unique to particular tasks The Middle Level- Abilities The Data-Based Approach - There are two middle-level abilities, we call “physical coordination” and “academic skill” o Suggests that different specific abilities are made possible by a single middle-level ability that is unrelated to other middle-level ability, enabling people to do different skills - John Carroll (psychologist) found that the pattern of correlations among tests suggested the existence of eight independent middle-level abilities o 1. Memory and Learning o 2. Visual Perception o 3. Audi
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit