Chapter 11 Mtuner Prep. 02/12/2014
Section 11.1 Hunger and Eating
Motivation: concerns the psychological and physiological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors
that direct organisms towards specific goals.
Motivation leads to homeostatis; the body’s physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent
internal states responding to outer environment
Motivation leads to drive the physiological triggers that tell us we may be deprived and seek if needed. And
it also leads to incentives (or goals) the stimuli we seek to reduce the drives such as social approval and
companionship, food, water, and other needs.
Hunger: motivation to eat. Stomach growls. Satiation is when we no longer are motivated to eat.
On switches of hunger in lateral hypothalamus. Off switch is in the ventromedial region of hypothalamus.
Damage to this area leads to obesity in animals. Paravaentricular nucleus signlas that it is time to stop
eating by inhibiting the lateral hypothalamus
Hypothalamus directs changes in blood glucose. Glucostats detect gluclose levels in fluid outside of cells
and signals the hypothalamus when glucose level is low, which increases hunger
Ghrelin, a hormone secreted in the stomach that stimulates stomach contractions and appetite.
Cholecystokinin helps regulate hunger as well.
Humans crave fat. Bad for us actually no shit though.
Fat releases dopamine and endorphins.. which are pleasure reward
Orbofrontal cortex, which contributes to the overall sensation of eating
Unit bias the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume.
Social facilitation: eating more
Impression management: eating elss
Modeling: eating whatever they eat.
Obesity is a disorder of positive energy balance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure 02/12/2014
11.2 Sexual motivation
libido; the motivation for sexual activity and pleasure
Sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution
Refractory period in men: where erection and orgasm is not possible in men
Oxytocin released in men and femals during orgasm
Dopamine rich reward highly active during orgasm
Erectile Dysfucntion inability to achieve or maintain an erection
Testosterone is sex hormone
Feminized brain from mother seinding her antibodies to the placenta 02/12/2014
11.3 Social and Achievement Motivation
The need to belong: (affiliation motivation) is the motivation to maintain relationships that involve pleasant
feelings such a swarmth, affection, appreciation and mutual concern for each person’s wellbeing.
Loneliness: hypertension, eaker immune system, high levels of stress hromones.
Parents have great effect on children and lonliness
Terror management theory= is a psychological perspective asserting that the human fear of mortality
motivates behavior, particularly those that preserve selfesteem and selse of belonging
Achievement motivation: drive to preform at high levels and to accomplish significant goals.
Mastery motives are motives that reflect a desire to understand or overcome a challenge
Perfeormance motives are enerally those motives that are geared towards gaining rewards or public
Approach goals are enjoyable and pleasant incentives that we are drawn towards such as praise or
Avoidance goals are unpleasant outcomes such as shame, embarrassment or emotional pain which we try
Procrastinate on avoidance goals 02/12/2014
Emotion: a psychological experience involving three components:
A) subjective thoughts and experiences with b) accompanying patterns of physical arousal and c)
characteristic behavioral expressions.
Anger= inc. heart reate, clenched teeth and fists, pursed lips and pinched brow
Emotional reactions involve the autonomic nervous system which conveys info b/w the spinal cord and the
blood vessels, glands, and smooth muscles of body
Parasympathetic nervous system uses more energy.. relaxs body
Sympathetic nervous system alerts body.. more aware, fear
Para and Sympa are opposite of one another
Limbic system critical for emotional processing. It includes the hippocampus, hypothalamus, amyglanda
and various cortial regions (P 428)
James Lange theory of emotion: our physiological reactions fo stimuli precede and give rise to the
Alternative to JLT is Cannon Bard theory of emotion which states that emotions such as fear or happiness
occur simultaneously with their physiological components
Facial feedback hypothesis: if emotional expressions influence subjective emotional experiences, then the
act of forming a facial expression should elict the specific, corresponding emotion
Two factor theory of emotion: holds that patterns of phsycial arousal and the cognitive labels we attach to
them form the basis of our emptional experiences
Emotional dialects which are variations across the cultures in how common emotions are expressed
Display rules refer to the unwritten expectations w ehave regarding when it is appropriate to show a
certain emotion Chapter 12: Personality 02/12/2014
Section 12. 1 Contemporary Approaches to Personality
Personality is a characteristic patten of thinking, interacting, and reacting that is unique to each individual,
and remains relatively consistent over time and situations.
Idiographic approach: meaning that they focus on creating detailed descriptions of individuals and their
unique personality characteristics.Can be applied to anyone It is person centered, and might include how
an individual perceives his or her own personality
Nomothetic approach which examines personality in large groups f people, with the aim of making
generlizations about personality structure. Advantage includes that it allows psychologists to ask questions