WEEK 7: 14.02.17.
CHAPTER 15: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Module 15.1 Social Influences on Behavior and Attitudes
Social psychology is a broad field of study that includes how individuals perceive and
think about other people, as well as how the presence of other people can influence
NORMS, ROLES, AND CONFORMITY
Norms and Roles
Social norms are the (usually unwritten) guidelines for how to behave in social contexts.
Some norms exists at the societal levels whereas others operate in smaller groups
Social roles are specific sets of behaviors that are associated with a position within a
While norms are general rules applying to a group, roles are guidelines associated
to specific positions within a group
o I.e. professor, student, coach
Mimicry and Conformity
Mimicry occurs when one person copies another’s behavior.
o Unconscious form of mimicry is the chameleon effect – mimicking
another’s behavior without meaning to or realizing that they’re doing it
Conformity refers to a change in behavior to fit in with a group.
GROUP INFLUENCE AND AUTHORITY
Social Loafing and Social Facilitation
Social loafing occurs when an individual working as part of a group or team reduces his
or her effort.
Research has identified a number of potential situational influences to turn anyone
into a loafer:
1. My effort will not help my performance
2. My performance will not make a difference to the group’s performance
3. The group may get rewarded but it won’t matter to me.
4. No one else is trying very hard
What will prevent social loafing is if the individual believes her contribution will
help the group succeed and get rewarded and if she values rewards too
Social facilitation occurs when an individual’s performance is better in the presence of
others than when alone.
Groupthink is a decisionmaking problem in which group members avoid arguments and
strive for agreement.
When people avoid arguments, three issues arises
1. The group becomes overconfident and gains sense of excitement about its
2. Group members may minimize or ignore potential problems and risks
3. May apply social pressure to members who are