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PSYA02 - CH 11 AND 12.pdf

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Steve Joordens

11.1 Hunger and Eating -what a person eats can influence thinking & behaviour, psychologists have discovered that when ppl. are exposed to images/thoughts of fast food, they do everything fast ->a study of volunteers who looked at fast food logos & describe their favourite food items showed faster reading, preference for time-saving products & chose to receive small payments immediately after instead of waiting a week for larger amounts of money ->it seems that fast food environments speeds up aspects of thinking & behaving Motivation-concerns physiological & psychological processes underlying initiation of behaviours that direct organisms toward specific goals, initiating factors are known as motives ->motives include thoughts, feelings, sensations & bodily processes that lead to goal directed behaviour ->it is essential to survival b/c it contributes to homeostasis-body’s physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to outer enviro. ->states include physiological needs like appropriate body temperature & hunger/thirst indicators ->for ex. thirst, when bodily water levels fall below normal, cells release chemical compounds that maintain structure/fluid levels of cells, receptors in body respond to increased concentrations of the compounds & lower water volume->sends msg.’s to brain which trigger thirst signals resulting in motivation to seek water/other fluids, maintaining homeostasis -humans are highly motivated to form social bonds, across physiological, social & achievement motivation; psychologists view motives as two parts: ->Motivated behaviour involves drives-physiological triggers that tell ppl. he/she is deprived of something & causes him/her to seek out what’s needed (like food) ->humans also respond to incentives (goals)-stimuli humans seek to reduces drives like social approval, companionship, food, water & other important needs Physiological Aspects of Hunger->as children, ppl. associated hunger (motivation to eat) with growling stomach ->tempting to conclude stomach contractions cause hunger but really, growling stomach is one of many physical processes associated with hunger ->a full stomach is cue for satiation-point in a meal when person is no longer motivated to eat, homeostasis of good intake is balanced b/t hunger motives & satiation -on & off switches involved in hunger can be found in few regions of hypothalamus, researchers have found that electrically stimulating lateral hypothalamus causes rats to being eating (like an on switch) ->ventromedial region of hypothalamus serves as the off switch, damage to this area leads to obesity in lab animals, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus signals it’s time to stop eating by inhibiting lateral hypothalamus -think of the hypothalamus as a hub of activity that sends/receives signals throughout body, when it comes to eating & hunger, hypothalamus receives info about tastes, textures & smells through nerves from mouth & nose->exchanges this info with frontal cortex -hypothalamus is also responsible for monitoring blood chemistry for indicators of levels of sugars & hormones involved in energy ->ex. hypothalamus detects changes in level of glucose-sugar that serves as primary energy source for brain & body, highly specialized neurons called glucostats can detect glucose levels in fluid outside of cell->when glucose levels drop, glucostats signal hypothalamus that energy supplies are low & hunger increases ->after food reaches stomach & intestines, sugars are absorbed into bloodstream & transported throughout body ->insulin-hormone secreted by pancreas, helps cells store circulating glucose for future use, as insulin levels rise in response to consumption of meal, hunger decreases but so does glucose levels leading to hunger again in a few hours ->however a psychologist can better predict how much person will eat by asking “How hungry are you?” than by measuring blood glucose levels Ghrelin-hormone secreted in stomach that stimulates contractions & appetite in stomach, ghrelin is also released by hypothalamus, functions to decrease appetite (as opposed to what it does in the stomach) ->cholecystokinin (CCK) is also key chemical in regulating hunger, as intestines expand, neurons release CCK which tells hypothalamus to stop eating Psychological Aspects of Hunger-ppl. go to great lengths to get their favourite treats, avoid bad- tasting items unless they’re extremely hungry ->sometimes food can be more of powerful reinforcer than highly addictive drugs, cravings for “sugar fix” (addiction to candy bars comparable to drug like heroin) ->ordinary sucrose (plain white granulated sugar) can stimulate release of dopamine in nucleus accumbens (brain region associated with reinforcing effects of substances like amphetamines/cocaine) ->taste is also powerful force behind motivation to eat, eating is motivated by psychological factors that include physical qualities of food (flavour, texture) as well as availability, social setting & cravings -despite numerous decisions of what to eat, generally most popular foods contain high levels of dietary fat & sugar Why Dietary Fat Can Be So Tempting -*recall that taste is based on pattern of stimulation of tongue receptors & mouth; receptors have evolved to help ppl. decide whether to eat/reject food ->humans have evolved to have strong preference for fat but long-term consumption of high fatty foods & cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular disease & other health problems -scientists hypothesize that humans have specialized tongue receptors sensitive to fat content of food, these receptors send msg.’s to brain & stimulate release of endorphins/dopamine- >responsible (for subjective sense) pleasure/reward -in a study, participants had their brains scanned while tasting various substances->different times tasted fatty solution (vegetable oil), sucrose (sweet taste) or tasteless control substance ->brain activity was recorded while diff. taste stimuli were delivered in liquefied form into participants mouths through small plastic tube, participants also asked to rate pleasantness of each stimulus ->overall participants rated fatty substance favourably, brain scans showed activation in brain regions associated with pleasure when tasting fat -however, MRI doesn’t approximate dining atmospheres, one possibility of preference for fatty foods is b/c fats are usu. very rich source of energy, helps enhance chance of survival when food resources are scarce -*important b/c helps understanding of how fat is sense in taste system & links to brain reward centres may help with treatments for avoiding/reducing excessive consumption of junk food -as chemical receptors in mouth & nose detect tastes/smells of food, touch receptors in mouth detect food textures & convert this info to orbitofrontal cortex->contributes info to overall sensation of eating->ex. cells help distinguish runny spaghetti sauce from thick one, crunchy peanut butter vs. creamy, spicy vs. bland -tube feeding->technique used with hospitalized patients who can’t chew/swallow on their own ->satisfies body’s nutritional needs by delivering nutrients directly to stomach ->healthy volunteers & tube-feeding experiment; were allowed to snack freely…some received nutrition through tube, others in control condition believed they were being tube fed but they weren’t, volunteers reported similar appetite & consumed just as much food under these 2 conditions ->seems that pleasure of food is motivating enough to eat, despite not needing nutrients The Dessert Menu-key to maintenance of healthy weight is to maintain energy balance, advised against eating more calories than burned ->ex. cognitive psychologists have focused on how thoughts about certain foods can become intrusive, hearing “potato chips” brings it to mind but intense craving can develop as obsessive thoughts, craving becomes intrusion upon thoughts that won’t go away unless satisfied ->don’t try ignoring thoughts, instead focus on something that requires active visual-spatial thought b/c imagery can help deal with cravings ->imagining sights/smells of craved food can help, advice when alone: pretend tips of index & middle fingers are 2 feet, have them walk across forehead in small steps while following them with eyes->this techniques has been shown to reduce cravings by one-third! -psychologists created a situation in lab through technique called bottomless bowl (of soup) ->volunteers asked to eat soup until they had enough, in experiment, tube continued to fill soup bowl from bottom, volunteers were oblivious to this ->individ.’s stopped eating after consuming on avg. over 70% more than participants who refilled bowls, the ppl. eating from bottomless bowls didn’t feel any more satiated (content & they didn’t believe they’d eaten any more than individuals in control group ->conclusion: humans aren’t so good at stopping when unable to keep track of how much is consumed -results of bottomless soup bowl study explained by unit bias-tendency to assume unit of sale or portioning is appropriate amount to consume, ex. 1 banana is ideal unit but in contrast, packaged/proportioned foods often come in larger than healthy sizes, ex. 20 ounce soda vs. 6 ounce soda few years ago (despite volume difference, each is seen as one unit of soda) -presence of other ppl. seems to increase motivation to eat but also decrease food intake too ->social influences have been narrowed down to 3 main factors: 1. social facilitation: eating more, dinner hosts can encourage guests to have 2 /3 helpings, big appetite ppl. will eat more but it seems that time spent at table is strongest element of social facilitation (longer person sits, more likely person continues eating) 2. impression management: eating less, sometimes ppl. self-consciously control their behaviour so that others seem them in certain way (impression management), ex. being polite by chewing with mouth closed, minimal eating norm suggest another aspect of good manners, eat small to avoid rudeness 3. modeling: eating whatever they eat, at first exposure to situation like business dinner, new employee discovers no one eats much & everyone takes their time, newcomer sees his employees as models, t/f he/she wilndrestrain eating, likewise, at an event like family reunion, everyone is encouraged to have 2 helpings so person is likely to eat more despite feeling full Disorders of Eating Obesity-disorder of +ve energy balance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, a major problem in controlling obesity is difficulty to ensure long-term maintenance of weight loss ->weight-loss options are numerous (some good, some gimmicks), some ads claim ppl. can lose weight without exercise, taking only a pill, on the other hand ppl. are told diet/exercise are only way to lose weight but even when ppl. follow this advice, it can seem like an impossible task -one problem of weight management is that both drive to eat & incentive value of food increase with deprivation, making overeating trends difficult to change ->several studies have shown girls/teens who self-report dieting are heavier later in life, restraint involved in dieting may actually make foods even more reinforcing in long run -researchers suggest ppl. who are obese have increased sensitivity to food/good-related cues, ex. when obese children are allowed to smell or eat just small sample of candy bars, cakes & nuts, they eat more of these items when given opportunity than normal-weight children ->obese ppl. have significantly higher metabolic activity in brain regions that respond to sensations of mouth, lips & tongue, suggests that ppl. with obesity have more intense/rewarding sensory experiences when it comes to food (*this is correlation, NOT one factor causing the other) Anorexia nervosa-eating disorder that involves self-starvation, intense fear of weight gain/distorted perception of body image & denial of serious consequences from extremely low weight Bulimia nervosa-eating disorder that’s characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge- eating & purging->involves short & intense episodes of massive calorie consumption, binging is followed by self-induced vomiting (purging), fasting, laxatives/diuretics & intense exercise ->males are less prone to these eating disorders than women but adolescent/young men may starve themselves during periods of high exercise to lose weight & achieve muscle mass -ppl. with regular exposure to Western culture more likely to develop bulimia than members of culture without such exposure, anorexia though doesn’t follow same sociocultural trend as bulimia Ch. 11.2 Sexual Motivation -cultural norms & values will always play a role in discussions of sexuality Libido-motivation for sexual activity & pleasure, individ. differences in sex drive are hard to explain b/c of biological & sociocultural factor combo ->on avg. men become sexually aroused more often, fantasize, pleasure themselves & desire more sexual partners than women, but rmb. there’s a wide variation in person’s sexual interests (some women might desire sex just as much as men) Human Sexual Behaviour: Psychological and Biological Influences-humans have many motives for pursuing/having sex ->sex frequently occurs without an end goal of reproduction, sex serves many purposes other than what seems to be its primary biological purpose ->sex for purposes other than reproduction seems rare in nonhuman species, the bonobo chimpanzee engages in frequent genital contact & other sexual behaviours without actually copulating -sexual themes are common in media, politics & discussion but it’s a challenging concept to study, ppl. keep it private! ->interviews/surveys are most commonly used b/c of least intrusion -Alfred Kinsey (zoology prof) studied human sexual behaviour, his research was flawed & controversial; he made huge generalizations based on limited samples but despite that, his work continues to influence discussion on sexual behaviour/motivation -Kinsey’s application of science to sexuality offended many; report of 37% of males having at least 1 homosexual experience resulting in orgasm was shocking ->he believed heterosexuality & homosexuality lied on a continuous scale ->since conducting his research, modern methods include anonymously completed questionnaires, replacing extensive interviews -modern study by psychologists asked 1500+ college (university) students to identify reasons for having sex ->physical, personal & social factors underlie sexual motivation, physical reasons related to sexual pleasure & orgasm ->many respondents used sex for instrumental reasons, accomplishing a goal (personal, financial) or revenge ->college students also motivated by emotional reasons & b/c of insecure feelings ->reproduction was ranked low in terms of top reasons, note that this study surveyed college students so it’s not representative of all of society ->some additional factors that motivate sexual behaviour include: expressing value/nurturance towards partner, stress relief & enhancing perception of personal power Sex After Sixty? -living in youth-oriented culture can make it difficult to discuss sexual lives of old ppl. in recent years, ads have showed older couples discussing sexual intimacy -in a recent survey, almost 75% of 57-64 yr. old respondents reported sexual contact with partner in past year, 50% for 64-75 yr. olds & 25% for 75 & 85 yrs. old, almost 50% of men & 25% of women in survey reported pleasuring themselves in past year -t/f data shows ppl. in 80’s still remain sexually active but approx. 40% of women in survey reported lack of desire as problem & about 40% of men reported erectile problems -in 1950’s researchers William Masters & Virginia Johnson described human sexual experienced based on observing 27 male & 118 female prostitutes agreeing to pleasure themselves or have intercourse under observation, monitored with heart rate, blood pressure equipment & devices that measured blood flow to genitalia ->Masters/Johnson followed up this study with observations of many men & women to characterize physiological changes that happen during sex Sexual response cycle-describes phases of physiological change during sexual activity, which comprises 4 main stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm & resolution, cycle applies to both male & female sexual responses but there are differences b/t the sexes in how these stages are experienced as well as duration -males & females differ in orgasm patterns, a study showed 21-32% of women reporting no experience of orgasm during self-pleasure or intercourse in comparison to 2% of men that didn’t experience orgasm ->men usu. experience single orgasm followed by refractory period-time during which erection/orgasm aren’t physically possible ->in contrast, some women experience multiple orgasms without refractory period -in analyzing subjective experiences of orgasm (women vs. men orgasm feeling), researchers asked college students to write detailed descriptions of their orgasm experience, they removed clues to sex of writer (using term genitals) ->judges (physicians, psychologists & medical students) couldn’t differentiate descriptions b/t male & female, t/f this suggests that to a degree, males & females have similar subjective experiences during orgasm -researchers have also focused on brain activity in women who experienced orgasm while being monitored by fMRI’s, stimulation of breasts & vaginal areas cause sensory nerve to send signals to hypothalamus ->hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland to release hormone oxytocin, blood levels of oxytocin surge just after orgasm & can remain elevated for approx. 5 min.’s ->oxytocin is released during male orgasm as well ->dopamine reward centres of brain become highly active during orgasm -physiological processes are involved in sex malfunction, in males this can include erectile dysfunction (ED)-inability to achieve/maintain erection ->ED is often caused by cardiovascular problems like hypertension, such the case, physicians can prescribe medications like Viagra, to enhance blood flow to genitals ->for females, physiological problems can lead to no arousal/painful intercourse despite wanting to engage in sex, medical treatments like estrogen replacement therapy can help ->sexual dysfunction can also be caused by depression/anxiety (cognitive/behavioural techniques can solve this problem) -electronic media (Internet, text msg.’s, social networks) have become common outlets for sexual expression ->cybersex-use of Internet & computer equipment for sending sexually explicit images/msg.’s to partner (estimated 1 in 3 adults currently have engaged in cybersex -since ppl. tend to communicate on digital media without holding back, this opens up possibility for impulsive behaviour (sexting), some teens suffer harsh consequences, can be considered sex offenders in some US states (underage pornography) Sexual Orientation: Biology and Environment Sexual orientation-consistent preference for sexual relations with members of opposite sex (heterosexuality), same sex (homosexuality) or either sex (bisexuality), current definitions of sexual orientation focus on psychological aspects of sexuality (ex. desire, emotion, identification) rather than strict behavioural criteria->a person can have a sexual orientation but never have sexual contact throughout their life ->Sigmund Freud advanced theory that male homosexuality could be traced to presence of dominant mother & weaker father figure ->recent argument that homosexuality could be caused by experiencing seduction from older sibling/playmate ->the above theories lack scientific evidence to confirm validity; researchers question whether sexual orientation is based on personal choice or biologically related factors (genetics, brain anatomy for ex.) -in early 1990’s neuroscientist Simon LeVay compared brains of deceased gay males to heterosexual males->found area of hypothalamus was on avg. smaller in gay men compared to straight men->this created controversy; ppl. thought his findings proved homosexuality was biological/genetically determined ->but *recall from prenatal development that enviro. factors also play a role to contributing to anatomical/functional brain differences -LeVay’s findings were hard to replicate, the gay men LeVay studied died of HIV complications which could have accounted for brain differences, work on animal subjects showed that only difference b/t rams (male sheep) that prefer males & female-preferring rams is smaller region of hypothalamus -researchers have also been interested by findings that suggest band of nerve fibres connecting left & right brain hemispheres (anterior commissure) is larger in homosexual men/women than heterosexual men->again though, this finding was hard to replicate ->even if hypothalamus & anterior commissure differ b/t gay & straight ppl., perhaps there’s no definitive characteristic of brain anatomy that determines sexual preferences, differences could be due to patterns of brain activity -imaging studies show sexual stimuli elicit diff. patterns of brain activity in gay & straight ppl. ->study: homosexual men & heterosexual women showed greater activation of medial preoptic area of hypothalamus while smelling male derivative of testosterone found in underarm sweat ->the medial preoptic area didn’t become activated when straight males smelled the sweat ->gay males/straight females show greater activity in brain reward centres when viewing pics of genitalia of sexually aroused males, same pattern of brain activity was found in straight males/lesbians when viewing pics of female genitalia Hormones and Sexual Orientation -*recall that testosterone is hormone that is involved in development of sex characteristics & motivation of sexual behaviour, found in both males & females but typically higher levels in males ->surges in testosterone associated with elevated sexual arousal in both genders, has long-term effects on sexual development -researchers have noted prenatal hormone levels influence sex-specific behaviour/sexual preferences in nonhuman species nd th ->during human development, particularly during 2 /5 months of pregnancy when fetal brain is developing rapidly, amount of testosterone fetus encounters influences behaviour later in life ->excess amount of testosterone leads to boys who are more masculine, if fetus is female, high exposure to testosterone is associated with showing male typical behaviour & sometimes homosexual orientation ->in contrast, low levels of testosterone during prenatal development results in feminization regardless of the fetus’ gender, t/f males exposed to lower levels are more likely to show homosexual tendencies & identify with feminine pursuits -a measure compares relative length of index finger (2D) & ring finger (4D), heterosexual females tend to have both these fingers of equal length (equal 2D:4D ratio) ->heterosexual males have longer 4D’s than 2D’s while on avg. gay males tend to have equal 2D:4D ratios & lesbians have the masculine ratios ->these differences in finger length rations reflect prenatal exposure to testosterone, which influences sexual orientation -however sexual orientation is complex aspect of human behaviour ->although most researchers of 2D:4D ratios use categorical approach to distinguish participants from gay or straight, psychologists since Kinsey’s studies view *sexual orientation as a continuum* (rather than a point on absolute either/or scale) ->diff. results can appear from sexual orientation research if a continuous measure is used instead, also *recall that being able to replicate research finding is important in scientific process; not all research on finger length ratios suggest gay & straight ppl. differ -*importance of hormones & sexual orientation is that there’s no valid scientific data to back the claim of homosexuality as a choice & can be altered, instead biologically informed ideas on how homosexuality arises is more accurate & gives society a better perspective to understand sexual minorities -another finding related to prenatal testosterone exposure is that gay males tend to have larger # of older brothers than straight males ->possible hypothesis: at birth, some mixing of blood b/t mom & newborn happens->if newborn is male, mother is exposed to proteins specific to males, triggering an immune response by mother ->if subsequent fetuses are male, maternal immune system can transport antibodies of immune system mother built up from previous birth across placenta ->this results in inhibition of testosterone circulation in developing males, which may lead to a feminized brain -sexual orientation can be influenced by a combo of genes, evidence comes from twin studies-> higher genetic correlations b/t identical twins compared to fraternal ->genetic correlations b/t 0.30 & 0.60 for homosexuality have been reported for both men & women, which suggests about half of individ. differences found in sexual orientation are due to genetic factors, this result tends to be true for gay men but in contrast->studies have failed to confirm relationship b/t genes & homosexuality in women -t/f it can be concluded that genes seem to play some role in sexual orientation (esp. for men) BUT it doesn’t mean sexual orientation is determined by genetics ->brain/endocrine system is sensitive to enviro./sociocultural factors, however cultural influences have small effect on sexual orientation ->some findings: more gay ppl. live in urban areas b/c of likelihood to settle there, students who attend same-sex schools more likely to have homosexual experiences than students in mixed-sex schools BUT doesn’t increase likelihood of gay orientation when the same-sex school kids reach adulthood, young males in New Guinea required to engage in sexual acts with adult males but doesn’t increase likelihood of being gay in adulthood ->in conclusion, evidence suggests sexual orientation is neither purely enviro. income or cultural creation ->complex gene-enviro. interactions determine sexual orientation Ch. 11.3 Social and Achievement Motivation The Need to Belong ->at the base of hierarchy of needs are physiological motives that must be satisfied before all others are considered, after these needs are fulfilled, person can move on to fulfill higher-level needs Need to belong (affiliation motivation)-motivation to maintain relationships that involve pleasant feelings (such as warmth, affection, appreciation & mutual concern for each person’s well-being) ->person must have sense that such feelings are part of a permanent relationship (like friendship or shared group membership) ->it seems that strong sense of belonging is fundamental in same way that food/shelter are needs, things that humans can’t survive without -what also makes up the definition of need to belong is a sense of permanence-emphasizing the types of needs humans have->specifically, person who has many +ve social interactions with series of diff. ppl. doesn’t enjoy same satisfaction/other benefits as someone who interacts with only few ppl. but regularly & for long period of time ->ex. a business executive who flies all over N. America may have great convos with passengers regularly but still feel extremely lonely, contrast this with a couple that lives on rural farm who see their neighbours weekly & goes to church on Sundays->permanence of family/community/church is important & they’ll probably be more satisfied with sense of belonging over long run -psychologists have found social connectedness is good predictor of overall health, loneliness is a risk factor for illnesses (like heart disease & cancer)->elevates person’s risk for having hypertension, weaker immune system & high levels of stress hormones ->relationships is true even when lonely & non-lonely ppl. have same amount of social interaction, *it’s the sense of belonging that counts ->simple indicators like living alone or rating of statement “I feel lonely” predict chances of survival/life expectancy (after heart attacks/bypass surgeries) -ppl. go to great lengths to form & maintain relationships, generally friendships & romantic relationships have their foundations in warm feelings/mutual attraction (it’s tempting to conclude ppl. maintain relationships b/c they’re +ve experiences) ->however, stats suggest that ppl. receiving abuse from someone is often very reluctant to end their relationships (even if perceived “good moments” are intertwined with cts. abuse) ->reluctance can be caused by fear of revenge, sense of financial dependence or frustration with services available to help ->ending relationships are difficult can be explained by simply strength of emotional bonds, it’s painful…in many cases, breakup involves period of depression/psychological stress exceeding emotional toll of abuse ->conclusion: need to belong is strong enough that it’s easier to endure abuse than break bonds -in terms of parenting, children require personal, social & financial sacrifices + physical discomfort associated with pregnancy/labour ->parenthood can be associated with high levels of emotional distress, depression & lower levels of marital satisfaction but despite these setbacks, having children is a celebrated part of life (b/c of the need to belong) Terror Management Theory and the Need to Belong -scientists know that humans are unique among life on earth b/c of awareness of own mortality *important question though is if humans must die, what makes them think they’re more important than other forms of life? Terror management theory-psychological perspective asserting that human fear of mortality motivates behaviour, specifically those that preserve self-esteem & sense of belonging ->in spite of emotional life-threatening experiences, humans use anxiety buffers- concepts/beliefs that prevent death-related anxiety->includes worldview (religious/political beliefs, sense of self-esteem) ->t/f thought of death is motivation to belong to something more enduring, reliance on future generations, continuation of native culture/way of life to boost sense of self-worth -to measure motivational power of terror mgmt. researchers induce mortality salience- increased awareness of death with simple reminders ->ex. volunteers write about what happens when ppl. die while control group writes about something unpleasant that doesn’t make death salient (apparent), like dental pain for instance ->in experiments, writing about death is enough to motivate ppl. to increasingly defend their worldview -psychologists have used interesting tactics to reduce impact of mortality salience->ex, asking participants to think +ve thoughts about parents, mortality salience effects disappear, proves that belonging to family/community/religion helps manage death-related anxiety -critics questioned whether it was really thoughts of death that created experimental effects or whether effects rep.’d reaction to unpleasantness of study materials ->terror mgmt. theorists respond by pointing out that same effects don’t arise among members of control groups who have been exposed to unpleasant stimuli (ranging from dental pain to anxiety of public speaking) *terror mgmt./mortality salience is important b/c it’s a powerful motivator regardless of one’s nationality/political persuasion Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation-drive to perform at high levels & to accomplish significant goals, often involves need to compete with & outperform others ->can be seen in desire to master a task (with or without other incentives/rewards) ->ex. student’s approach to school, entrepreneur’s desire to build business, athlete’s hopes of winning gold medal -it is normal to feel highly motivated in some situations while unmotivated in others; there’s wide variation in types of motivation ppl. experience ->mastery motives-reflect desire to understand/overcome challenges ->performance motives-generally geared toward gaining rewards/public recognition ->approach goals-enjoyable & pleasant incentives humans are drawn toward, like praise or financial reward ->avoidance goals-unpleasant outcomes (shame, embarrassment, emotional pain) humans try to avoid ->psychologists refer this as a 2 X 2 motivation framework -research has found that students are most likely to procrastinate when they’re working on avoidance goals, it’s very hard to write term paper if only motivation is to avoid failing or appearing stupid, such motives are diff. from actually wanting to write a paper ->procrastination is least likely when mastery/approach goals are combined, genuine interest in learning about topic & expect to fain something by completing project makes it easier to start early -although it’s tempting to assume that ppl. can only experience 1 form of motivation at a time, students can be motivated to learn AND simultaneously experience motivation to finish degree -ex. of program in NYC that involves paying young students for good test scores, this strategy has been criticized by many ->this program focused more on performance motives than mastery, doesn’t encourage students to enjoy learning but only to find that passing tests is all that’s needed to get rewards ->psychologists have observed that those motivated by intrinsic factors (gaining knowledge/experiences for fun) may actually lose interest in activities if external incentives become available Cultural Differences in Motivation to Achieve -whether a person’s values the utility of learning a new skill is culturally influenced ->investigation: psychologists recruited U.S. born & East Asian college students who identified as having low interest in math to participate in study on achievement motivation->students read materials on how to use unique method for computing multiplication prob.’s ->within instructional materials for math prob’s were passages explaining utility of technique (including important for improving memory & succeeding in graduate school/employment) nd ->half of participants from each culture took part in the above condition while 2 half were assigned to control group who learned math technique but didn’t have utility of doing so explained to them ->all students computed sample problems using method introduced in instructional materials & rated whether they found technique to be useful ->researchers discovered that in comparison to U.S. students, the East Asians with little interest in math reported greater interest in learning task, tried harder when told it’d be useful for future schooling/employment prospects ->the U.S. students found that math technique more valuable if it helped with more immediate demands (like managing finances or measuring ingredients) 11.4 Emotion Emotion-psychological experience involving 3 components: (1) subjective thoughts & experiences with (2) accompanying patterns of physical arousal & (3) characteristic behavioural expressions->ex. anger may involve thoughts/feelings of frustration, aggravation & ill will ->anger comes with increased heart rate, clenched teeth/fists, pursed lips, pinched brow -many emotional experiences come from hard-wired responses, some basic like anger & happiness appear across human spectrum ->facial expressions are universal, even in the blind & deaf, proves that basic expressions are hard-wired into genetic makeup rather than something learned from observation Biology of Emotion -physiology of emotion involves both brain & rest of body, *recall that many of human emotional reactions involve autonomic nervous system-conveys info b/t spinal cord & blood vessels, glands & smooth muscles (of body) ->ANS maintains heart rare, respiration, digestion; interconnections with specialized regions of brain give rise to experience of emotion -ex. imagine taking peaceful walk & then snarling, angry dog is in the way->the physiological aspect of emotional experience involves division of ANS called sympathetic nervous system- >generally increase energy levels to enable person to handle frightening/dangerous situations or recall *fight-or-flight response ->to fuel this response, SNS draws energy away from bodily functions that can wait until end of emergency (like immune responses & sexual arousal) -ex. imagine giant auditorium where person is about to give speech, anxiety may build as audience comes in->situation is different than angry dog but SNS produces same effects (increased heart rate, sweating, alertness…etc...) -the aftermath of both the above scenarios->person will likely feel calming effects regulated by parasympathetic nervous system-another division of ANS that uses energy more sparingly, brings heart rate back to resting rates, focusing on non-emergency tasks like digestion Is the Polygraph a Valid Lie Detector? Polygraph (aka lie detector)-measures respiration, blood pressure & palm sweat (ANS responses that should increase when someone lies), used in situations like evaluating statements made by convicted sex offenders, divorce cases & sometimes employee screening ->controlled studies of polygraph recordings suggest they only provide evidence of arousal (not valid indicators of lying) -in terms of brain imaging, researchers report increased brain activity in frontal & parietal lobe regions when subjects are being deceptive (compared to when they’re telling truth), can discriminate false from true 78% of the time, suggesting it’s more reliable than polygraph -the most inexpensive method is to examine facial expressions/non-verbal cues, some ppl. are better at spotting lies, ppl. can be trained to detect subtle nonverbal microexpressions that indicate lying -*recall: limbic system is important to emotional processing->includes hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala & various cortical regions -amygdala is involved in evaluating situations to determine which types of emotions are appropriate, it seems to connect perception of these situations to brain regions that stimulate physiological responses required for action ->amygdala is active when person views any type of threatening stimulus/situation, once threat is detected, amygdala stimulates body into action by sending msg.’s to sympathetic branch of ANS (causing increased pule, respiration/sweat) & sends msg.’s to motor centres controlling startle/freezing reactions -neuroscientists believe emotional responses (like fear) can follow 2 separate pathways: ->sensory info first goes through thalamus & then may go directly to amygdala, stimulating hormonal & autonomic responses, route sometimes called fast pathway b/c body is ready for action before stimulus is even fully perceived ->secondly, thalamus relays info to sensory areas of brain (like those devoted to vision) which then stimulate amygdala & physiological responses->slow pathway involves conscious recognition of stimulus/situation -emotions besides fear can arise from electrical activity in brain, full range of emotional experiences involves diff. areas of cerebral cortex ->generally, ppl. more prone to depression/-ve emotion tend to have more activity in left frontal lobe ->complex primary emotions like fear, anger, happiness & sadness seem to involve component of limbic system->it’s difficult to distinguish each emotion by just looking at brain images of person experiencing emotion ->brain imaging shows that emotions involves regions all across brain The Psychological Experience of Emotions: Competing Theories James-Lange theory of emotion-physiological reactions to stimuli (racing heart) precede & yield emotional experience (fear), *i.e. subjective experience of fear follows physiological response ->claims that sense of fear is determined by how body responds, although it seems to make more sense that fear comes first (heart races b/c person feels frightened), this theory relies on principle that physiological reaction can’t give rise to an emotion, hearts race in many situations (like running) so response alone isn’t enough to create emotions Cannon-Bard theory of emotion-states emotions like fear or happiness occur simultaneously with physiological components -James-Lange theory (mental subjective experiences) influenced by bodily responses that precede them, consistent with facial feedback hypothesis-if emotional expressions influence emotional experiences, then act of forming facial expression should trigger specific, cor
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