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PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13 TEXTBOOK NOTES - MIDTERM REVIEW (Motivation and Emotion)

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John Bassili

Chapter 13 Motivation and Emotion Motivation: a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an individuals behaviour WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Proactive forward-looking o Reinforcement o Motivated to gain a reinforce or to avoid an aversive event o (i.e. food, pain, smiles, frowns) Reactive response to conditions present at the time o Why reinforcers have their effects Biological Needs Regulatory behaviours: brings physiological conditions back to normal, restoring condition of homeostasis o Eating, drinking, hunting, shivering, building a fire, and putting on a warm coat Homeostasis: when physiological characteristics are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level o Body temperature, blood pressure Regulatory system has four essential features: o System variable: variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism Temperature in a heating system o Set point: optimum value of the system variable in regulatory mechanism Human body temperature set point 37 degrees celcius o Detector: a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point o Correctional mechanism: the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point Room temperature example o Negative feedback: the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action. Rise in room temperature causes the heater to turn off o Drive reduction hypothesis: hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforced. Nature of motivation Hunger serves as a drive: a condition that is often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium, that energizes the organisms behaviour The act of eating reduces hunger and serves as a drive reduction in reinforcing www.notesolution.com
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