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Chapter 18

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 18 The Treatment of Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorders and Psychotherapy Early Treatment of Psychological Disorders - trephining: a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skill of a living person o hole was made for evil spirits to leave the mind The Development of Psychotherapy - eclectic approach: form of therapy in which the therapists uses whatever method he/she feels will work best for a particular client at a particular time Insight Therapies - practitionars assume that people are essentially normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and emotions - view behaviour as a symptom of a deeper underlying psychological problem Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches - psychoanalysis: form of therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into his/her unconscious motivations and impulses - conflicts demands between the id, ego, and super ego leads to anxiety - point of psychoanalysis o place the patient in situations to gain clues about the origins of the intrapsychic conflicts o these clues reveal the patients dreams, memory, manner of speech o by exposing them to these will gain insight into problem o individuals have biased view of their own problems not accurate Psychoanalytic Techniques - free association: Freud; used to encourage the client to speak freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts o client was encouraged to report any thoughts/images that came to mind w/out worrying about its meaning o minimal authoritative influence over the client (eliminate eye contact) - IMPORTANT dream interpretation evaluating the underlying meaning of dream content - manifest content of a dream: what events/images actually occurs within the dream - latent content of a dream: hidden meaning/significance behind a dream o manifest masks the latent latent content is anxiety provoking - client is healed but must suffer a great deal to attain healing paradox? - resistance: when the client becomes defensive and attempts to halt further insight by censoring his/her true feeling o does so by changing the subject, or misses appointments, or forgets what he/she was about to say - transference: when the client begins to project powerful attitudes and emotions onto the therapist o occurs over a period of months when the client becomes less inhibited - counter-transference: where the therapist projects his/her emotions onto the client Modern Psychodynamic Therapy - psychodynamic therapy: therapists search for unconscious conflicts and motivations but do not adhere to Freuds conception of psychoanalysis o place less emphasis on psychosexual development and more emphasis on social and interpersonal experiences o see the ego as having more control over the subconscious - intermittent psychodynamic therapy clients do not continuously see a therapist o rather, they take lengthy breaks and return only when a need arises - brief psychodynamic therapy 10-25 sessions to complete o goal? to understand and improve the clients interpersonal skills through the interpretation of transference processes - early experiences with others influence our current relationships Humanist Therapy - humanist therapy: provides the client with a greater understanding of his/her unique potential for personal growth and self-actualization o belief that everyone has a great potential in life and a psychological problem is an impediment in the way to attaining full potential o remove the impediment and retrieve potential anew Client-Centered Therapy - client centered therapy: Rogers; client is allowed to devide what to talk about without strong direction and judgement from the therapist o the therapy is centered around what the client wants - incongruence: psychological problem where the persons perception of themselves is different than their ideal perception o who they are v. who they want to be - because the client is running ship, therapist use reflection to mirror the clients statement to touch on a certain topic- unconditional positive regard: the clients worth as a human being is not dependant on anything he/she does, says, feels, or thinks - therapist must believe that even though they may not like the behaviour of the client they must believe that the true nature of the client is good Gestalt Therapy - gestalt therapy: emphasizes the unity of the mind and body by teaching the client to get in touch with bodily sensations and emotional feelings o places emphasis on present conditions, not past ones - empty chair technique: client imagines that he/she is talking to someone sitting in the chair beside them o our memories, fears, and feelings of guilt affect our ongoing relationships with others o THUS this allows you to have that experience again and do it right so that theres no guilt o therapist forces an honest confrontation with the past problems Behaviour and Cognitive-Behaviour Therapies Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning - Wolpe; everyday fears and anxieties become associated with netral stimli through coinicidence o ex/ get into car accident get into a car for the first time after accide
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