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Nussbaum D (52)
Chapter 3

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Nussbaum D

Chapter 3 Milgram Participant asked to play the “teacher” role, giving a “student” shocks for incorrect answers  Both the “student” and the shocks were part of the cover story In compliance with the experimenter, most of the participants gave painful shocks to the “student.” Milgram wanted to test how far people would follow instructions, based on the obedience that Nazi officers showed during WWII. Back then, they claimed to be only following orders. Historical Background Nuremberg War Crime Trials (1946) – Nazi doctors experimented on prisoners for scientific reasons. Tuskegee syphilis study (1930s) – low-income African American men were used as subjects to study the effects of syphilis. The participants weren‟t told of their illness and were denied the treatment until 1972, even though the cure (penicillin) was found in the 1950s. These lead to the creation of the Belmont Report (1979).  Respect for persons: treating persons as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished autonomy  Beneficence: minimizing possible harms and maximizing benefits  Justice: distributing benefits and risks of research fairly Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (1991)  Federal regulation requires that every institution that wants federal funding for research on human beings have an institutional review board (IRB) that reviews research proposals Ethical Proposals The most recent version of the APA Ethics Code (2002), contains 151 enforceable Ethical Standards as well as five General Principles. Violating these rules can result in legal consequences and expulsion. Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Psychologists have to try to benefit those that they work with and to do no harm. Professionally, psychologists have to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected person. (This includes animal subjects of research). Psychologists also have to be careful of personal, financial, social, organizational, or political factors that might lead to misuse of influence. Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility Psychologists establish trust with those with whom they work. They need to work in the best interests of their patients. This includes ethical compliance of their colleagues‟ scientific and professional conduct. Principle C: Integrity Psychologists need to promote accuracy, truthfulness, and honesty in the science/teaching/practice of psychology. They cannot steal/cheat or engage in fraud/subterfuge/international misinterpretation of fact. They must try to keep promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. In times when deception may be necessary, there needs to be considerations for the consequences and the responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of the techniques. Principle D: Justice Fairness and justice entitle all persons to access and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists. Psychologists must make sure that their potential biases, boundaries of competence, and the limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices. Principle E: Respect for People‟s Rights and Dignities Need to be aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making. Considerations can be based on:  Age  Gender/gender identity  Race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion  Sexual orientation  Disability 
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