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Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Lecture2 Chapter2 The foundation of psychological research Abstract  Relationship between independent variable and dependent variable internal state Description (understanding)  Conceptual definition = provides the meaning of an abstract term. Conceptual definition (provide meaning of abstract term) Operational definition (from conceptual definition, how concept coded, measured, or quantified) Explanation (establishes predictive relationship, not imply causality) Causality requires three kinds of evidence (Cook & Campbell, 1979): 1. Temporal precedence (cause precedes effect) 2. Covariation 共变 of cause and effect (cause present, effect occur/ cause is absent, effect not occur) 3. Alternative explanations (No confounding) Logic of Experimentation (eliminate all other possible “causes”, subtraction) Practical Knowledge Basic and Applied Research 1. Basic research (Addresses questions about the nature of abstract natural processes and ideas) 2. Applied research (Addresses questions that are thought to be of immediate relevance in solving practical problems) Sources of Research Ideas Observation (Balance between focus and openness) Serendipity effect open mind increase the chance of accidentally discovering something fortunate (unplanned) James-Lange theory (physiological change experience of emotional change)  Autonomic nervous system  Regulates bodily reaction to stress Cannon-Bard theory (emotion come first physiological change)  Emotional experience  Emotions come first, followed by bodily change Embodiment theory of emotion (Bodily state and their associated emotion)  perceiving and thinking emotion involve re-experiencing in oneself those subtle physical and mental change of relevant emotion Autonomic nerve system  Part of peripheral nerve system  Regulate body reaction to stress Literature 1. Primary sources (peer-reviewed publications, first hand empirical report) a. Empirical articles (particular study, abstract, introduction, method, result and discussion, certain format)  Particular study  Empirical generalization: statement describe found in data  Certain format divided into section with an abstract, introduction, method, result and discussion  First-hand empirical report b. Review articles (Evaluates the methodology used across different studies)  Studies of particular phenomenon, such as facial expressions of emotion  Evaluates the methodology used across different studies 2. Secondary sources(journalistic pieces scientist work, second hand media accounts of scientific work, outlet text book, newspaper) a. Popular science (Explain science  general audience)  Explain science for a general audience (eminent scientist) b. Science journalism (Focus on recent development  newsworthy)  Focus on recent development in science that are judged newsworthy c. Archival Research (Conduct empirical research on public records)  Conduct empirical research on public records Searching the Literature  Not free, are proprietary  Open only to describers 1. Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com)  Research of scholarly and scientific literature
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