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Chapter 8

Chapter 8-Group Processes.doc
Chapter 8-Group Processes.doc

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School
University of Toronto Scarborough
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
epg
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 8 Group Processes Group - a collection of two or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent, in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on each other. - Groups can include school teams, family, campus groups, community groups, temporary groups (classmates in a school project) etc. - Group membership also plays an important role in motivating people to become involved in social change. - A group cannot be known as a group if it involved many people. For example a college or university you attend is not a social group, because you are unlikely to meet and interact with every student there. - Another important feature of groups is that the members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions. Social roles - shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are suppose to behave. - Ex a boss and an employee in a company occupy different roles and are expected to act in different ways in that setting. - People ca get so into a role that their personal identity and personality is lost. Example participants either were the prison or the guard for two weeks. Wanted to see whether they began to act like real prisoners or guards. They wanted to see if they actually become that role they were playing. - Gender roles are also involved when it comes to social roles. Women are seen to become a house wife and a mother, whereas men are seen to pursue a career and bring in the income. Group Cohesiveness - How tightly knit the group is - Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them. - Would you rather spend your free time with people who you don’t really care about for each other ot with a tightly knit bunch of people who feel commiited to each other. Example, you find a bunch of friends who like to go watch movies. Social Facilitation - when the presence of others affects/energizes us - the tendency for people to do better on simple tasts, but worse on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of other and their individual performance can be evaluated. - the presence of others can mean one of two things: 1) Performing a task with other who are doing the same thing you are 2) Performing a task in front of an audience that is not doing anything except observing you. - if you know that a task is simple or difficult for you, it will affect your performance. If there is a task that you know how to do (ex. Playing pool) then performance should be improved with the presence of others. If however you do not know how to play pool, and you find it as a difficult task, then your performance will be in habited in the presence of others. If you know how to play pool and you feel comfortable playing it, then the arousal caused by the presence of other should improve your game. - When an individual is around other people, that individual does better on tasks that are simple and well learned, but worse on tasks that are complex and require them to learn something new ( learning a new sport) Three reasons for causes of arousal when in presence of others: 1) Other people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant 2) They make us apprehensive about how we’re being evaluated ( if you do poorly then you will feel embarrassed but pleased if you do well) 3) They distract us from the task at hand so we tend to lose focus and concentration. - Arousal enhances performance on simple tasks but impairs performance on complex tasks. Social Loafing - The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of other and their individual performance CANNOT be evaluated. - When the presence of others relaxes us - Merging into a group and becoming less noticeable than when we are alone, we should become more relaxed. - Social loafing in groups occur in a variety of simple tasks such as clapping your hands, cheering loudly, and playing tug of war (you exert less effort when you are with others rather than if you were pulling the rope on your own). - Social loafing occurs more in men than in women. This is so because women tend to be higher than men in relational interdependence (tendency to focus on and care about personal relationships with others). - You need to know two things to predict whether the presence of other will help or hinder you performance: whether your individual efforts can be evaluated/noticed and whether the task is simple or complex. Deindividuation - being in a group can cause deindividuation - The loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a group, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts. In other words, getting lost in a crowd, or hiding behind the anonymity of the internet, can lead to an unleashing of behaviours that individuals would never dream of doing otherwise. - People who participated in lynching’s often did so cloaked in the anonymity of white robes and hoods masks which can lead to deadly actions. - People who hide their faces were significantly more likely to be dangerous - Disguises tend to make those wearing them capable of far more terrible acts of vi
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