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Chapter 10

Chapter 10- Personality.docx

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Kira A Borden

Chapter 10: Personality ; Cognitive Foundations of Personality Field Dependent: people who see the big picture - Learn fast by being totally immersed in everyday situations where they are surrounded by a new language Field Independent: people who reply on their own physical sensations and have selective attention to a particular object without being distracted by the surrounding details - Good at learning languages in a traditional classroom setting LOCUS OF CONTROL - Peoples beliefs about the control of reinforcements and outcomes in their lives *Julian Rotter first to Define Locus of Control Internal Locus of Control (internals): people who believe that they have some control over what happens to them - Pay more attention to information that will be useful to them later and also retain more information - Take more action and establishes more realistic goals - Assume more responsibility for themselves and others - Higher credit ratings - Higher income and more financial knowledge, more highly educated - Greater job commitment, intrinistic motivations, productivity, career success, and job challenge - More satisfied with their job - Sensitive to pay incentives and work well under incentive systems - Better entrepreneurs - Overall better physical aand mental health; more likely to take health into their own hands - Happier; External Locus of Control (Externals) : people that they believe they have little control over what happens to them and believe that reinforcements or outcomes are due to chance, luck, fate, powerful others, or are unpredictable - these people are not particularly distressed by their beliefs - more stressed out at work - more vulnerable to anxiety and depression; less able to cope with stressful situations; greater risk of suicide - *People have both ways of beliefs but one outweighs the other Locus of control is measured with Internal-External Locus of Control Scale - 29 pairs of statements ( 6 pairs are fillers ) higher scores = external locus of control ; lower scores = Internal Locus of Control Individualistic Cultures like America carry a more internal locus of control environment - Illusion of Control; people believe they have control even in situations where objectively the do not o Individualistic cultures Canada America - are vulnerable to this Collectivistic Cultures like Asia tend to be more external Primary Control: attempt to make themselves feel better or less distressed by changing circumstances - Internal locus of control Ex: you tend to make yourself feel better because you cant change the circumstances Secondary Control: attempt to fit into, accommodate, or accept a situation or an event in ways that make themselves feel better or at least less distressed - Internal locus of control - Japanese “akirame” being at peace witth one face - Yoga – tend to make you feel better  Americans are turning more to secondary control as a way od maintaining control; o This shift is reflected in a more external locus of control Opposite of having Internal locus of control: not having an external locus os control; feeling helpless in the present and hopeless about the future Learned helplessness: come to believe that their actions will be useless in future situations - Leads to loss of motivations, problems in thinking and learning, and negative emotions such as sadness, depression and anger Yoking: treatment that participants in one condition receive depends on how participants in another condition behave Triadic design: using the 3 conditions( inescapable condition, escape condition, experimental control condition) tests that the controllability of the shock, not the shock itself causes the helplessness  Key to avoiding helplessness: learning that any response is effective  Helplessness first causes anxiety ; after prolo
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