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PSYB30 CH9.odt

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

CHAPTER 9: REGULATION AND MOTIVATION: SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY -Edward Deci and Richard Ryan: self determination theory: there is a big difference bw engaging in an activity bc of extrinsic reasons and engaging in the same activity for instrinsic reasons >the reasons why we do something are often more imp than what we do – important for effort, performance, and task persistence >the way another person communicates his or her expectations and instructions to us also has a big impact on our effort, performance, and task persistence THREE FUNDAMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS -S.D theory is grounded in the humanistic tradition which empahsizes responsibility, growth, and the actualizing tendency -Carl Rogers: actualizing tendency: the motive to actualize or bring about growth and positive change -according to S.D theory, there are three basic and universal psychological needs: >autonomy: feeling free and able to make choices about one's actions, being self-regulating and able to determine one's own actions and plans, as opposied to feeling like a pawn at the mercy of others or fate >competence: feeling effective in one's actions and having the opportunities and experiences to exercise, expand, and express on'e abilities >relatedness: feeling connected to others, having ppl to care for and to receive care from • despite whether ind's were born and raised in a collectivistic or individualistic culture w tranditional or egalitarian values, applies to everyone • once these fundamental needs are met, ppl feel motivated and will happily participate in some activity—will feel intrinsically motivated, perform well, and, as a result, build skills and increase their well-being How Do We Satisfy These Needs? -ppl need to get their needs met by the context or situation in which they find themselves FosteringAutonomy:Autonomy Support -for persons to satisfy their need for autonomy they must feel they can act out of their own volition (i.e., their wishes, preferences, desires) -strategies that help ind's develop & express their own self are autonomy supportive—the opposite is control -one way to support autonomy is providing choice -another way is by encouraging initiative—give ppl a chance to decide for themselves what they would like to do or how they would like to do it w/o fearing repercussions for choosing poorly >achieve this by supporting persons' choice even if they disagree w it >then, they should stand by to help their children or students live w the consequences of these decisions at a level the person can cope with -when not possible to give choice or control: recognizing and respecting the ind's point of view & feelings abt the matter or helping ind's see how their actions relate to their personal goals, beliefs, or values, goes a long way toward helping ppl regulate their own behaviour and stave off helplessness Fostering Competence: Structure and Optimal Challenge -to build competence, ppl need tasks that r aimed at the right level – not too easy, not too hard – w steps that are clear and doable >ppl need to know what is expected of them & immediate feedback from the task -an imp part of satisfying the need for competence is working on tasks that are optimally challenging >engagement in tasks that have a clear set of foals, that require approp responses, give immediate feedback, and in which ppl are operating at their maximum capacity can lead to a positive state called flow: an experience marked by complete absorption, deep enjoyment, intense concentration, and almost an altered state, as ppl block all irrelevant stimuli and focus entirely on the task at hand -tasks that are a bit beyond a person's skill level, personally meaningful, highly enjoyable, engrossing, or worth doing for their own sake, lead to the greatest amount of intrinsic motivation and positive emotion Fostering Relatedness: Involvement -autonomy support and task structure both occur w/in a relationship >the quality of these relationships can increase the likelihood that autonomy & competence needs will be met -ppl feel related or connected to others thru involvement: the interest shown in them and their concerns, the time a person spends w them and the energy that others invest in them -a research study results highlight the predictions of self-determination theory that relatedness is an imp but often overlooked variable in predicting motivation and engagement -autonomy-supportive teachers show a sensitivity and attunement to students by sensing the cognitive and emotional states of their students and adjusting their instruction accordingly Then and Now: Undermining Intrinsic Interest -what is the effect of extrinsic factors like rewards and also external controls like deadlines, imposed goals, competition, surveillance, and evaluations, on intrinsic motivation -undermining of intrinsic interest or the overjustification effect: when intrinsic interest in an activity is already high, like drawing was for the example of children, if extrinsic factors are made more salient, by giving a reward, for example, then ppl will discount their own intrinsic reasons for doing the behaviour –ppl come to see the activity as the means to some end and cease to view the activity as desirable in itself >according to a meta-analysis study the results are clear and consistent: tangible rewards undermine the intrinsic interest of participants, both children and college students -key to predicting when rewards or threats of punishments will have negative effects on motivation & performance is to realize that external motivators can convey two meanings: 1) control: this aspect of an extrinsic factor suggests that the behaviour is under external control, thwarting ppl's satisfaction of the need for autonomy >this kind of reward that is controlling will undermine intrinsic interest 2) informational: this aspect provides feedback abt ppl's performance on the task so that they can adjust their behaviour and thereby satisfy their need for competence >this type of reward will increase feelings of competence and not undermine intrinsic interest • it is not the reward that is good or bad, but how the reward is communicated & interpreted -external motivators such as deadlines, imposed goals, competition, surveillance, and evaluations may also undermine intrinsic interest and performance if they are used to control (robbing autonomy) instead for information CONNECTIONS B/W SELF-DETERMINATION THEORYAND OTHER THEORIES IN PERSONALITY Autonomy and Locus of Causality -locus of control: describes the connection b/w behaviour and outcomes (internal locus of control i.e., effort hard work..etc influences what happends to them; external locus of control i.e., fate, luck, chance influences what happens them) >opposite of locus of control is feeling helpless -personality psychology refer to the connection b/w choice & behaviour as locus of causality (aka autonomy—the extent to which ppl feel free to choose their own behaviours or follow their own interests) -the opposite of autonomy is compliance or defiance, both of which occur in direct response to the controlling actions of another -anytime a person gives in to external or internal pressuires to behave in a certain way, he or she is behaving w/o autonomy -ppl may understand the contingency bw their behaviour & some outcome & are able to control their behaviours (locus of control) but they many not want to or feel free to engage in those behaviours (locus of causality) -the feeling of pressure to just do what you are told and the lack of being able to act in a way that is truly and authentically yourself illustrates an external locus of causality and a lack of autonomy Competence and Self-Efficacy Theory -self-efficacy: belief that one can be competent and effective at some activity –two parts: 1) outcome expectation: belief that behaving in a certain way will produce a certain outcome 2) efficacy expectation: belief that one is capable of acting in a certain way; that is, the expectation abt whether a person will succeed or fail at performing the required action Person----->Behaviour (efficacy expectation)-------->Outcome (outcome expectation) • according to self-efficacy theory, the efficacy expectation is more imp than the outcome expectation –situations where ppl knw what they ought to do but feel incapable of actually doing it • self-determination theory would call this a lack of perceived competence -knowing ppls self-efficacy predicts how motivated they will be before & during an activity -self-efficacy theory predicts amount of motivation, but does not differentiate among types of motivation they way S.D theory does -self-efficacy developed from 4 sources of information: 1) personal experiences: successes build efficacy whereas failure decreases it 2) vicarious experience of watching another person enact the behaviour & succeed or fail & then trying it ourselves—esp empowering are personal stories of ppl who have overcome difficulties in their lives thru determination & effort 3) can be developed or changed through social persuasion—friends, coaches, teachers, or therapists, for example, might be able to convince another person that he or she is capable of taking a desired action 4) self-efficacy beliefs can come from physical & emotional states • activities that tires us out, make us sweat, or cause aches and pains lower our self-efficacy & may prevent us from attempting an activity • activities that energize us or occur in the absence of negative visceral reactions increase our self-efficacy & make us want to attempt the activity • tension, anxiety, and depression on many tasks, as well as feelings of fatigue and pain on tasks that require stamina and strength may be interpreted as signs of low self-efficacy Relatedness andAttachment Theory *reminder: an attachment figure can be a secure base from which to explore the world and a safe haven to retreat to in times of stress -feeling connected to others, along w/ autonomy and competence, gives us the motivation to engage w the world, persistence when the going gets tough, and increased well being Research Methods Illustrated: PathAnalysis -research in S.D theory uses the path analysis technique to test how variables affect each other >researchers use statistics to their hypotheses abt how variables relate to one another >they then draw a path diagram visually showing the sign effects of the variables on each other • variables can have a direct effect on another variable—identified by a solid line • variables can have an indirect effect on another variables—identified by a dotted line • variables can have no effect on another variable—identified by an absence of a line • head of the arrow tells us the direction of the effects. Lines w double arrows indicate that two variables affect each other >each of the lines connecting variables represents the regression coefficient (how much the x variable is weighted when it is used to predict the next variable in the model)--weight can be positive (indicating it causes an increase in the next variable) or it can be negative (indicating that it causes a decrease in the next variable) -for each model researchers propose, they test: 1) if the overall model accounts for a sign amount of variability in the data 2) if the weights are significantly diff from 0 3) if the effects are direct or indirect -->once q's answered, researchers draw the path diagram WHAT IT MEANS TO BE SELF-REGULATED -motivation is best characterized on a continuum, ranging from extrinsic to intrinsic, varying in how much volition or autonomy a person feels they have >being self-regulated means adjusting our own behaviours and attitudes somewhere along this continuum of motivation depending on the situation & the activity at hand -amotivation: a state of having no motivation, where ppl are neither extrinsically nor intrinsically motivated, perhaps feeling apathetic or alienated Types of Motivation -intrinsic motivation & intrinsic regulation occur when ppl engage in an activity due to reasons inherent in the activity itself, like satisfaction or pleasure -extrinsic motivation: occurs when an activity is undertaken for reasons that are external or seperable from the activity itself, like gaining a reward or avoiding a punishment. 4 types: 1) external regulation: completely extrinsic and controlled by something or someone outside ourselves. i.e., a child brushes teeth to gain a reward like watching favourite TV show or receiving a praise 2) introjected regulation: behaviour is controlled by something w/in ourselves. It is experienced as just as controlling as external regulation, except we act as our own controlling agents, using guilt, anxiety, conditional self-esteem, obligation, approval, or other thoughts to control ourselves. i.e., not being told to brush your teeth by a parent and instead do it by your own choice and perhaps feel good abt yourself when you do (introjected regulation) *both external + introjected regulation considered controlled & therefore part of extrinsic motivation b/c person feels pressured or controlled by demands and contingencies 3) identified regulation: when we accept the activity as personally meaningful, perhaps for some greater goal which is more imp than hassles involved in the task at hand 4) integrated regulation: ppl have internalized the goals and values of the enterprise (e.g., work env, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, getting an educ) even tho the part activity (e.g., preparing reports, quitting smoking, taking an exam) is not inherently interesting –activities that are integrated are generally expressions of our true, authentic selves -example: ppl who believe that they should take care of their bodies would probably show identified regulation for brushing their teeth and might not mind the momentary discomfort of hard bristles and medicine flavoured toothpaste. However, if the only reason a person brushers her teeth is to avoid having a nasty case of gingivitis, that would be an example of external regulation -ppl can undertake uninteresting tasks if the meaning and greater value behind the activities is understood Causality Orientation -ppl differ in their causality orientation or their typical ways of self-regulating >there are imp ind differences in what ppl expect from the world & how they approach specific situations -there are three causality orientations: 1) autonomous orientation: describes the degree to which ppl interpret a situation as autonomy supportive, providing info for their own self-regulation—developed when all three basic needs are regularly met. Attracted to stimulate their intrinsic motivation & which they find optimally challenging 2) controlled orientation: describes the degree to which ppl look for controls in the env and let the env or their own introjects determine & regulate their own behaviour – ppl develop this when some degree of their needs for competence and relatedness are met but not autonomy— ppl w controlled orientation self-regulate thru introjects & external contingencies, are dependent on rewards + other controls, & show diminished well-being 3) impersonal orientation: describes the degree to which ppl feel they lack control over imp outcomes—develops from consistently having all three needs thwarted—they approach situations with amotivation w/ detachment & apathy SELF-DETERMINATION THEORYAPPLIED -model of motivation & engagement: the context provides the nutriments for meeting the three needs (structure for competence, autonomy support for autonomy, & involvement for relatedness)--when needs are met, we feel motivated Health Behaviours -researchers & practitioners have applied principles of S.D theory to help patients to take better care of themselves -the more autonomy, competence, & relatedness patients feel, the more willing + able they are to change a bad habit Sports Behaviour -there is nothing inherently motivating or demotivating about competition by itself—however, the context in which competition occurs can undermine intrinsic motivation if athletes experience the situation as controlling Work Behaviour -there are many steps that can be taken for managers to foster motivation of their workers, leading to a sustainable motivation—that is, a self-directed, rather than externally controlled, motivatoin that persists in the absence of direct surveillance The Pursuit of Happiness -it both what you choose to pursue and why you pursue it that is imp for well-being and happiness CHAPTER: COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY -field dependent: tendency to see big picture rather than details -field independent: ppl who rely on their own physical sensations and have selective attention to a particular object w/o being distracted by the surrounding details -ch looks at ind differences + beliefs & take an in-depth look at an area of focus in personality: how ppl think abt the causes and impacts of events in their lives & how these differences in locus of control, learned helplessness, optimistic & pessimistic explanatory styles, & dispositional optimism make us who we are Locus of Control -locus of control: ppl's beliefs abt control of reinforcements & outcomes >ppl who beleive that they have some control over what happens to them have an internal locus of control & are often called internals >externals, or ppl w an external locus of control, believe that they have little control over what happens to them and instead believe that reinforcements or outcomes are due to changes, luck, fate, powerful others, or are unpredictable • expectations developed from experience in the world -ppl that have been rewarded for their actions will think they can control what happens to them (internals) -externals that have not been rewarded for an action will think they lack control & events are due to external causes or for unknown + unpredictable reasons >they process info differently: internals pay more attention to info & are able to retain for the reason that knowing more abt one's condition or situation is an imp step toward changing one's circumstances Measures of Locus of Control -measured w Internal-External Locus of Control Scale -studies have suggested that more positive outcomes in achievement, work, health, and relationships are assoc'd w having an internal locus of control Locus of Control &Achievement -internals take more action than externals, including taking political action, and achieving greater academic success by studying more, performing better on tests, and getting better grades than externals -also better at planning + working at long-term goals & establishing more realistic goals -also assume more responsibility for themselves & hold others to high standards of responsibility as well Locus of Control and Work Behaviour -internals show greater job commitment, intrinsic motivation, productivity, career success, job challenge, and worked more hours than externals -ppl w an internal locus of control are better able to turn their thoughts and dreams into actions -locus of control affects performance and performance also affects future locus of control beliefs Locus of Control and Physical and Psychological Health -the belief that they can control what happens to them combined w a greater willingness to take action contributes to the overall better physical and mental healthy of ppl w an internal locus of control -also more likely than externals to wear seatbelts, excercise, quit smoking, use birth control, keep track of their medications, and take steps to reduce their risk of breast cancer -externals more vulnerable to anxiety & depression & less able to cope w stressful life experiences -ppl w internal locus of control use more problem-focused coping, look for possible solutions & take concrete steps to make things better -externals use more emotion-focused coping, relieving their feelings of anger, anxiety, or sadness by talking w others Locus of Control and Social Behaviour (leads to differences in how ppl interact w others) -ppl w internal locus of control more likely to show independence & resistance to social influence than externals -externals more vulnerable to persuasion, social influence, & conformity pressures -in accord w where they perceive the rewards to be, internals & externals differ in which aspects of a situation they pay more attention to >externals more sensitive to social demands of a situation whereas externals r more sensitive to task demands of the situation -when interacting w strangers, externals talk more and look at their partners more than internals—due to expectations of where they receive their rewards (from their own behaviours or from behaviours of others) Cultural Differences in Locus of Control -basic differences bw internals & externals hold firm across a variety of cultures -individualistic cultures have more internal locus of control, extent to that they vulnerable to an illusoin of control where ppl believe they have control even in situations where, objectively, they do not -collectivistic cultures tend be more external & believe supernatural forces, fate, or destiny determine outcomes -John Weisz & et al., suggested there are two ways of taking control—need internal locus of control for both: 1) primary control: ppl attempt to make themselves feel better or less distressed by changing circumstances 2) secondary control: ppl attempt to fit into, accommodate, or accept a situation or an event in ways that make themselves feel better, or atleast less distressed • as americans move from young adulthood to middle age, they show primary control but then show secondary control as they move into old age -crucial difference b/w externls & internals: externals have a 'victim mentality' in which they feel helpless, act passively and believe that there is nothing they can do to change their outcomes or reinforcements—often leading to depression LEARNED HELPLESSNESS -Martin Seligman & his colleagues wanted to figure out why dogs, after being exposed to inescapable shock, were unable to escape from a later escapable shock -Overmier and Seligman reasoned that when dogs or humans find themselves in a situation where they are exposed to aversive stimuli that they cannot reduce, eliminate, or control in any way, they may experience learned helplessness & come to believe that their actions will be useless in future situations as well >they hypothesized that lack of control causes state of learned helplessness—which leads to loss of motivation, problems in thinking and learning, and negative emotions such as sadness, depression & anger -yoking: when a treatment that participants in one condition receive depends on how participants in another condition behave -key to avoiding helplessness: not learning that a particular response is effective, but learning that any response is effective -flip side to helplessness: personal control -one can learn helplessness from either: ppls' beliefs about control, their expectations about a specific task and their past experiences w uncontrollable outcomes -helplessness causes many downhills for ppl--> it first causes anxiety then after continued exposure, it causes depression -learned helplessness marked by three parts: there must be a noncontingency or disconnect bw ppl's actions & their outcomes, but exposure to uncontrollable outcomes is not enough to cause helplessness; ppl must expect their actions will be ineffective in the future—finally ppl give up + act passively when they recognize there actions are fruitless -the way ppl understand cause of helplessness is v imp for determining how devastating the feelings of it will be -reformulated theory of learned helplessness: hopelessness model of depression—the belief that one lacks control—is helpless in the face of a negative event in the present—combines w the belief that the helplessness will continue in the future -->causes person to lose hope, stop trying & feelings of sadness -ppl can feel helpless w/o feeling hopeless if they anticipate that circumstances might be diff in the future Explanatory Style -explanatory style: after many experiences, ppl develop habitual ways of explaining both the bad and the good things that happen to them in life—how ppl differ in this style is an imp aspect of personality • pessimistic explanatory: ppl who view negative events as their own fault (internal) likely to happen again (stable), and undermining other aspects of their lives (global) are at risk of depression • optimistic explanatory:ppl view negative events as not their own fault (external), unlikely to happen again (unstable), and limited to just one aspect of their lives (specific) -explanations for events vary in 3 ways: 1) how internal versus external the cause might be (blaming oneself or blaming external source) 2) how stable or unstable the cause is: the difference bw lack of effort and lack of ability has to do w how permanent or stable the cause is 3) how global or specific an the cause might be—bad events for a optimistic person: specific-''its just this one situation” whereas a pessimist might make it 'global' and say “it's going to undermine everything I do” -explanations of events differ in three dimenstions: they can vary in locus of control (internal or external), stability (how stable, permanent, or recurrent a cause is vs how unstable, temporary, or intermittent it is) and generality (how global, affecting many aspects of a person's life, or limited to a specific domain a cause is) Measures of Explanatory Style -two basic ways of measurement: >questionnaire:Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) >content analysis: CAVE technique-- one must find a direct quote of a person explaining why a good or a bad event happened to him or her. Researcher then quotes the event and the explanation and presents both to trained judges who rate the explanation on the three dimensions of internal-external, stable- unstable, and global-specific • advantage: researcher can measure explanatory style of historical figures, famous ppl, politicians, athletes—anyone who has left a sample of some sort of writing (ie., diary, journal..etc) Explanatory Style andAchievement -ppl w optimistic explanatory style outperform expections in school and on the playing field School -students w an optimistic explanatory style show greater motivatoin & persist longer in the face of adversity, strategies which are related to higher achievement -pessimistic explanatory style may work to improve achievement such as when faced w highly demanding academic programs like law –perhaps viewing failures as internal may be a way of keeping oneself on track or motivated for success -pessimistic explanations tend to be self-fulfilling: students w a this style were less likely to have specific academic goals and less likely to seek academic advising, symptoms of passive rather than active strategies to school achievement Athletics -optimists perform better than pessimists in the sports arena -why does explanatory style have such a strong effect on athletic performance? -- researchers think that the key to a winning athletic performance is the ability to persist despite setback Explanatory Style and Work Behaviour -across diff cultures, workers w an optimistic explanatory style are more motivated, persist longer in the face of adversity, perform better, and experience less burnout and turnover than works w a pessimistic explanatory style >esp when it comes to sales -will changing a worker's explanatory style to a more optimistic one also lead to better outcomes at work?--yes. -optimistic explanatory style not only leads to better outcomes at work but also helps workers successfully weather the changes & stresses of a corporate reorganization Explanatory Style and Physical and Psychological Health Physical Health -pessimistic explanatory style can be bad for one's physical health -an optimistic explanatory style is linked to better immune functioning, also engage in healthier behaviours and also sets the stage for better health in middle age (if ind is healthy during young adulthood) Psychological Health: Depression -pessimistic explanatory style a risk factor for depression in children + adults -pessimists experience more negative emotions such as anxiety, guilt, anger, sadness, despair & hopelessness in the face of negative events than optimists -much research finds a correlation bw explanatory style and depression at the same point in time -even children r vulnerable to depression when bad events happen to them, if they have a pessimistic explanatory style -evidence that depression can cause a pessimistic explanatory style >the greater the number of daily hassles ppl experienced, the more likely they r to experience depressive symptoms (esp if they have a pessimistic explanatory style) -Martin Seligman & colleagues at the Uni of Pennsylvania devised the Penn Resiliency Program -other studies show that a pessimistic explanatory style may be more adaptive in certain situations –and also better for the mental health of elderly ppl >the optimist's lifetime habit of viewing negative events as temporary & changeable is suddenly thrown into doubt when negative events occur for elders.. lifestyle changes assoc'd w aging are permanent for elders and in most cases really do impact many domains of their lives ..similarly, aging may be harder for optimists who apply their typical active problem-focused coping to unsolvable problems—pessimist accept some things happen outside their control—therefore, optimistic explanatory style may be a risk factor for elders given the reality of their lives Explanatory Style and Social Behaviour -differences bw explanatory styles show differences in social behaviour & marital satisfaction -the kind of attributions we make for our friends and life partners, giving them the attributional benefit of the doubt, leads to better outcomes, like marital satisfaction 1 yr later, the same way it does for our own behaviours -lonely and depessed ppl blame their problems in interacting w others on their own lack of ability or personal defects, attributing interpersonal failures to stable causes in themselves -lonely ppl experience helplessness when it comes to interacting w other ppl Cultural Differences in Explanatory Style -Chinese ppl tend to have a more pessimistic and less optimistic explanatory style thanAmericans -there is something about cultural va
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