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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 11 Gender and Personality Men are better than women when it comes to spatial ability spatial reasoning where participants have to mentally rotate an objectIn one experiment women who trained on an action game not a puzzle game caught up to the spatial ability level of the average man without the special training in the action or puzzle gameBELIEFS ABOUT PERSONALITY SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMENThe American majority culture is so taken with gender differences that differences between men and women are seen as large unchangeable present from birthpart of the very essence of what it means to be a man or a womanWomen are believed to be more concerned with nurturing whereas men are more concerned with actions and accomplishmentsWomen and men also pursue different careersResearch Methods Illustrated Effect SizeMetaAnalysisEffect size tells us the size of that differenceEg The amount of tomatoes or lime juice a salsa has will affect its overall tasteIn a metaanalysis researchers combine the individual results of different experiments to calculate an estimate of how large an effect is across many different participants samples experimenters methodsmeasuresEffect size is estimated using the formula ddMMsmfd02 smalld05 mediumd08 largePositive dMales score is higherNegative dWomens score is higherClose to 0 d Not much of a difference Like any type of review a metaanalysis is only as good as the data that go into itIdeally researchers should identify and compile all of the studies ever conducted on a topicOur estimate of effect size d is calculated as a ratio of difference between genders compared to individual variability within a genderDIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN FACT OR FICTIONIn a very carefulstrict summary of metaanalytic research on gender differences including some very extensive national studies Janet Hyde 2007 found that 78 of the effects reported were small 48 or nonsignificant 30Table 113Things to notice in table 113Table represents the results of over 1500 studies compiled into a single table by effect sizeHalf of the effects are trivialEven where there are significant differences there could possibly be a percentage overlap between men and women1
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