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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Five Basic Traits

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Semester
Winter

Description
LECTURE 5 FIVE BASIC TRAITSIN THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR A strong case must be made for the idea that behavior patterns are always a function of situational opportunities and constraintsExtraversion Extraversion is the alltime superstar in personality traitsResearchers have conducted more empirical studies on extraversion than any other traitIt is a broad and bipolar continuum running from the high end to the low end most of us fall in the middle of the continuumExtraversion is a family of related smaller traits all sharing a resemblance to each other but each carving out something of its own identity within the broad family constellationSocial Behavior and Cognitive Performance We r by human nature social beingsExtraverts o Direct their psychological energy outwards to the social world o Is outgoing sociable and enthusiastic but also impulsive and heedless Eysenck o Are more socially dominant o Might have more friends than introverts o Talk more and sooner when they meet someone new and engage in more eye contact o Show firmer handshakes than introverts o Study in places that afford opportunities for social interaction o Extraverts do more gambling o Extraverts tend to be more sexually active and have higher sex drive o They are drawn to occupations that involve dealing directly with other people o They show superior performance to introverts on tasks requiring divided attention resistance to distraction and resistance to interference o Extraverted locomotive drivers show better detection of railway signal stimuli post office trainees show faster decoding of mails and tvviewers show better shortterm recall of tv news broadcasts o They show preference for speed over accuracy o They are termed as geared to response whereas introverts are termed geared to inspectFeeling Good Research has found that E is positively associated with reports of feeling good about lifeExtraverts report greater levels of positive affect in everyday lifeMeasures of subjective wellbeing tap into 2 independent features o Positive affectreports of good feelings o Negative affectreports ofbad feelings o E is positively associated with reports of good feelings but unrelated to reports of bad feelings o Extraverts report more positive affect than introverts but they do not necessarily report less negative affectOne explanation to that may be that extraverts may be less responsive to punishment than introvertsIntroverts appear to dwell on the negative and punitive features of certain social situations and recall less positive info and rate others less positively in social situationsExtraverts respond in the face of punishment and frustrations they are motivated by punishment and work harderThey tend to come towards another trial before they can actually learn from their mistakesThey are better able to control their moods o Mood regulationability to maintain a positive ratio of good to bad feelings in life o One good way to keep a good mood is to try to stay positive as long as you can o Extraverts are better able to savor positive experiencesExtraversion was positively related with the selfreport measure to maintain a positive emotional balance but unrelated to the selfreported ability to repair a negative moodExtraverts tend to recall more positive moods than negative moodsExtraverts are more assertive in social situations o A path analysis was used to teststatistically both direct and indirect effects of variables in one another o The study found that there was a positive and significant association between social competence and happiness o There is a direct effect of extraversion on social competence o Removing the pathway of happiness by virtue would still make the extravert positively happy o Highly extraverted people have a lot of confidence with leads to happiness or produces it o There is some leftover effect of extraversion on happiness Many argue that the relationship between extraversion and positive emotion is so consistent that extraversion itself should be renamed positive emotionality or positive affectivityA study showed that extraversion was positively associated with ratings of pleasant and moderately pleasant social events and pleasant nonsocial situations as wellOther researchers interpret that even though positive effect and extraversion are indeed correlated they are by no means the same thing o Some studies have shown low correlations between extraversion and positive affectivity high extraversion may be associated with lower positive affect in some situationsWe r indeed species with a fundamental need to belong
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