Textbook Notes (362,790)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 7 Language & Communication 1. Describe what language is. Define phonology, semantics, grammar, and pragmatics. T HE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE : PHONOLOGY , SEMANTICS , GRAMMAR ,AND P RAGMATICS  Communicative Competence  the ability to convey thoughts, feelings and intentions in an organized, culturally patterned way that sustains and regulates human interactions o Communication is a two-way process: send messages and receive them  Productive language  the production of speech  Receptive language  understanding the speech of others  Language  a communication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various, regulated ways to produce an infinite number of messages. Four Components of Language: o Phonology  the system of sounds that a particular language uses  Includes phonemes  any of the basic units of a language’s phonetic system; phonemes are the smallest sound units that affect meaning  Changing a phoneme changes the meaning of a word o Semantics  The study of word meanings and word combinations, as in phrases, clauses, and sentences o Grammar  The structure of language; made up of morphology and syntax  Morphology  the study of a language’s smallest units of meaning, morphemes  Morphemes  any of a language’s smallest units of meaning, such as a prefix, a suffix, or a root word.  Syntax  prescribes how words are to be combined into phrases, clauses, and sentences o Pragmatics  a set of rules that specifies appropriate language for particular social contexts 2. Discuss the nativist, learning, and interactionist approaches to language acquisition, including criticisms of each approach. T HEORIES OF LANGUAGE D EVELOPMENT The Learning View: Claims and Limitations  Skinner: tradition learning explanations use the principle of reinforcement to explain language development (parents give their infants approval to their closes approximation of adult speech) o BUT: naturalistic studies of parent-infants reveal that parents are just as likely to reward their children for truthful but grammatically incorrect utterances  Bandura: children pick up words, phrases, and sentences by imitating what they hear, then through reinforcement and generalization, or applying what he has learned to new situations, the child learns when it is appropriate or inappropriate to use particular words and phrases 3. Discuss the implications of the animal language debate, in terms of critical periods and nativist versus empiricist arguments. 4.Discuss the critical period hypothesis, as well as evidence both for and against this idea. The Nativist View: Claims and Limitations  Chomsky: Language-Acquisition Device (LAD)  children are born with mental structures in the nervous system that incorporates an innate concept of language.  Nativists argue that because language ability is an inherited species-specific characteristic, all languages of the species must display universal features = must share basic characteristics Chapter 7 Language & Communication  Critical Period  a specific period in children’s development when they are sensitive to a particular environmental stimulus that does not have the same effect on them when encountered before or after this period Limitations of the nativist explanation:  Few theorists agree about the exact nature of the types of grammatical rules that children learn  Language learning is a gradual process and is not completed as early as nativists would predict  Nativist perspective makes it very difficult to account for the many languages human beings speak throughout the world  Nativist view gives the social context of language little recognition, whereas we know that social influences play a much larger role in the process than is proposed in a nativists view The Interactionist View  Interactionists recognize that language is learned in the context of spoken language but assuming as well that humans are in some way biologically prepared for learning to speak  Interplay between biological and environmental factors  See language as the integration of learning in multiple domains FACILITATING CHILDREN ’S LANGUAGE D EVELOPMENT  Language-Acquisition Support System  (social interaction view) a collection strategies and tactics that environmental influences – initially a child’s parents – prove the language learning child.  Emphasizes the parents’ role as facilitators of language acquisition Using Simplified Speech  Infant-Directed Speech/Child-directed Speech  a simplified style of speech parents use with young children, in which sentences are short, simple, and often repetitive; the speaker enunciates especially clearly, slowly, and in a higher-pitched voice and often ends with a rising intonation (This is often called motherese).  Simplified speech facilitates children’s language learning in the sense that exaggerated contours of motherese increased 6 to 7-month-old infants’ abilities to discriminate vowel sounds  But it might not always be beneficial, children who had progressed beyond the one-word stage were more likely to respond appropriately to an adult for of a command  Parents adjust their speech to a child’s level of linguistic sophistication when children or infants show signs that they are not comprehending Other Influence Techniques  Expansion  a technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they imitate and expand or add to a child’s statement  Recast  a technique adults use in speaking to young children in which they render a child’s incomplete sentence in a more complex grammatical form o Through recasting, adults are both correcting children’s utterances and guiding them toward more appropriate grammatical usage o Develop linguistically at a faster rate, using question and complex verb form at an earlier age than is common Is Social Interaction Crucial to Language Development?  Those who advocate the interactionist view hold that although the child is biologically prepared for learning language, there is also strong support for the role of environmental input in the child’s development of language Chapter 7 Language & Communication 5. Describe some of the different aspects of the antecedents of language development, including preverbal communication, early language comprehension, and babbling. T HE ANTECEDENTS OF L ANGUAGE D EVELOPMENT Pre-Verbal Communication  Smiles seem important in helping infants learn how to coordinate vocalizations and to translate expressions into effective communication  Gestures and expressions are very important in pseudo-conversations of adults and their infants  Pro-declarative  a gesture that an infant uses to call attention to an object  Pro-imperative  a gesture that either an infant or a young child may use to get someone to do something she or he wants  Joint Visual Attention  The ability to follow another person’s attentional focus or gaze of attention o Major advance in infants’ communicative abilities, important for social interaction and referential communication between infants and their parents o Possibly necessary for the growth of pointing and other abilities o Precursor to language acquisition  Over time children reduce their use of gestures as they rely increasingly on their verbal skills to communicate their needs and wishes Early Language Comprehension  Categorical Speech Perception  the tendency to perceive a range of sounds belonging to the same phonemic group as the same o Suggests that infants are indeed born with some innate mechanism for perceiving oral language  Beyond Categorical Perception o As babies develop they lose their ability to distinguish the sounds of language to which they have not been exposed Babbling and Other Early Sounds  The Production of Sounds o Crying begins at birth and is an important way of indicating distress and serves as a rudimentary means of communication o Cooing  production of vowel-like sounds (such as “ooo”) o Babbling  an infant’s production of strings of consonant-vowel combinations o Patterned Speech  a form of pseudo-speech in which the child utters strings of phonemes that sound very much like real speech but are not  These stages overlap, and even patterned speech and true speech may occur together as the child’s first meaningful words begin to appear  Amount of time exposed to language appears to be an important factor Understand the course of semantic development, including how children acquire words, what words they learn first, and errors in early word use. SEMANTIC D EVELOPMENT  Children’s understanding of language far exceeds their capacity to express themselves clearly  Naming Explosion  rapid increase in vocabulary that the child typically shows at about 1 ½ years of age How Children Acquire Words  Word learning is based on associations combined with attention to perceptual similarity of overall object shape Chapter 7 Language & Communication  Children use mainly social cues from adults to learn what a word labels  Children depend on social cues such as pointing and the speaker’s eye gaze  Multiple cues are available to infants for learning, but how much they depend on each type of cue changes with age  Younger children rely on perceptual similarity to learn when a word is the correct label for an object, but as they get older they become more dependent on social and linguistic cues  Whole word complaint involves the assumption that a new word refers to the entire object and not to one of its parts or properties  6 Principles of the Emergenist Coalition Model (ECM) o Necessity to understand language  Principle of reference (idea that words stand for objects, actions, and events) o Novel Name-Nameless Category (N3C)  Upon hearing a novel label, infants assume it labels a novel object over a familiar one
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.